UNDERGRADUATE CORE CURRICULUM

First-Year Seminar Courses 2020-2021

You'll take a FYS within your first two semesters at Xavier. FYS is a rigorous, academic, 3-credit course. In the catalog, FYS is called CORE 100. Search under "Core Curriculum" to find these courses.

Spring 2021

Growing Pains
Kelly Austin

Welcome to college, that space between adolescence and full-blown adulting. That means the freedoms and responsibilities of adulthood, without the experience. It's a time to explore who you want to be (identity) and what you want to do (vocation). Some psychologists call this developmental phase emerging adulthood. In this section of First-Year Seminar, we'll study theories of development, identity and belonging to see what makes this phase of life unique and interesting and challenging—and sometimes terrifying. After all, they're called "growing pains" for a reason. We'll examine literature that highlights adolescence and emerging adulthood, and use those discussions to investigate your own journey on the path to adulthood.

 

Ethics, Justice and the Environment
Brent Blair

We each depend on the environment in obvious and subtle ways. But, how we perceive nature and choose to treat it depends on many factors including time period, culture, and economic status. In this course we will explore these ideas as well as how degraded environments impact human wellbeing differently depending on who you are (e.g., race, class & gender) and where you live. Basic ecological and environmental science principles will be explored.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Slow Food: We Are What We Eat
Kelly Blank

Slow Food is an international movement that began in Italy in 1986, emphasizing Good, Clean, and Fair food. In this First Year Seminar, we will discuss the history, philosophy, and influence of the Slow Food movement worldwide while examining the problems with the modern agricultural machine both in a local and in a global context. Topics of discussion will include the importance of local and seasonal produce, the inherent connections between plate and planet, the water footprint of food, labeling of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms), biodiversity, and the ethics of meat production and consumption.

 

Metaphor, Memes, and the Power of Language

Jane Conzett

What does human language reveal about what we believe? We will explore metaphor and its role in our thinking, examine its use in multiple disciplines, take a dive into memes as a subset of metaphor, and look at the power of langauge "for good" and for malign purposes.

 

A Jesuit Catholic University: What's the Point?

Dan Dwyer

Did you come to a Jesuit and Catholic university merely to memorize and regurgitate facts, data, and information that will get you a job? Or did you come also to learn about who you are as a human being in relation to others and a possible Creator and reflect upon the purpose and meaning of life during what used to be called a "college experience"? In this FYS, we will reflect upon the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake (the liberal arts, culminating in the synthesis of faith and reason) and its relation to the pursuit of knowledge for the sake of a professional career (your major). By reading, discussing, and writing short critical essays on authors who challenge the absolute value of 21st c. careerist education, we will reflect upon the intrinsic value of what might seem to be at first useless and pointless core classes that seem to "get in the way" of your job prospects.

 

Sport at the Service of Humanity
Sr. Rose Ann Fleming

How can sport serve humanity? Selected readings show how sport brings humanity together across global boundaries to celebrate human talent, regardless of religion, race, culture, beliefs, gender and ability. Immersive experiences such as visits and interviews with members of professional teams and NCAA Division I teams, indicate how sport teaches men and women positive values of joy, respect, love, compassion, enlightenment and balance. Dialoguing with sport experts, and attendance at local sports games, enables the class participant to reflect, critique, and discuss, orally and in writing, the principles and values that sport offers humanity, as well as how to address the evils and scandals that can arise when the power of wealth and greed in sport corrupt the sport environment.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

History of Xavier

C. Walker Gollar

Description coming soon

 

Entrepreneurship: How to Outswim the Sharks in the Tank
Mike Halloran

This course dives into the questions of how and why entrepreneurship can serve the greater good and the role of entrepreneurship in your professional career, no matter what career that you decide to pursue. Learn how entrepreneurs deal with failure, find their purpose, and their keys to success. Course includes 8-10 guest entrepreneur speakers, thought-providing class discussions, learning about the exciting entrepreneurial community in Cincinnati, and investigating the benefits and costs of entrepreneurship for individuals and society as a whole.

 

Transcending Humanity: The New Biology
James Helmer

The American futurist and transhumanist thinker Ray Kurzweil has suggested that the essence of humanity is our creation and employment of technology.In exploring ethical and religious themes in relation to emerging biotechnologies, this seminar will engage "big questions" such as the reality of God/the Transcendent, the meaning of human existence, and the nature of the human condition (e.g., embodiment, life, death, sickness, disease, finitude, moral perfection).The seminar will give particular consideration to the ethics of employing such biotechnologies in order to overcome human limitation and to fundamentally alter the human condition.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Bob Dylan

Graley Herren

This seminar will focus on the major artistic achievements of Bob Dylan, the highly accomplished, provocative, and influential singer-songwriter and Nobel laureate. We will study select works from his wide-ranging 60-year career, beginning as a teen folk singer, transforming into a rock icon, and continuing through his Nobel Prize in Literature in 2016 and beyond. Our primary emphasis will be upon Dylan’s songs as written and performed, but we will also read selections of his prose and see a few films. We will study Dylan from various disciplinary perspectives: music, literature, film, performance, culture, history, religion, and politics.

 

What Is Really Happening at Our Southern Border: How We Got Here and How to Move Forward

Irene Hodgson

In this class, we will look at how the current situation at the border has roots in U.S. foreign policy, especially regarding Latin America, and how it is shaped by changing ideas of what the U.S. is and aspires to be. We will consider different perspectives on immigration and migration, including those of immigrants themselves as well as those of governments, groups and individuals on both sides of the border and in the interior, including in Cincinnati. We will look to international treaties, U.S. laws and religious and moral leaders such as the Pope, the Catholic bishops, the Jesuits and others for their insights as we examine what our obligation to the common good requires of us as well as other ethical issues raised by what is happening at our border.


Revolutionary Reels

David Inczauskis, S.J.

Much of the information we receive about political change comes in the form of videos. In this class we will analyze one major feature-length film from each continent and discover how filmmakers capture and/or criticize revolutionary politics through their cinematographic technique. We'll look at the socialist movement of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, the liberation of Algeria, the Russian Revolution, and class conflict in Korea. Finally, students will choose a film or video of their own and use the tools they've acquired in the class to assess its take on a particular revolutionary social movement.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

The Power of Images: Photography and Social Justice
Johann Le Guelte

We are immersed in a visual culture, where images and iconographies, photographs and videos—whether seen on TV, the Internet or other digital platforms—determine the contours of our social identity and impact our perception of the world. Visual representations are undeniably powerful. So what can they teach us about issues of social justice? This course will examine how, exactly, images function and often mediate our understanding of history and the present. Topics covered will include photography and race, gender identity, migration, activism, politics, fashion, and more.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Food on the Move: From Ship to Shore

Margaret Martin

In this FYS, we explore food on the move, from ancient Roman olive oil to South African wine, from wars "won on their stomachs" to high-tech military labs, from banana boats to modern shipping containers. Our plates are full--of history, technology, logistics, economics, politics, ethics, and more.

 

The Art of Expression: Cultivating Creativity for Balance, Growth, and Community

Madeleine Mitchell

Anyone can be an artist, but many people don't see themselves as one. This seminar explores how creative expression is an integral part of being human and how it contributes to personal and intellectual growth, meaningful life work, and stronger communities. In this course, we will examine various roles of artistic expression in society: healer, teller of hard truths, voice of solidarity, and catalyst for social change. Students will study and research examples of art movements, engage with local artists, and create individual works of art.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Popular Music and Social Justice
Mich Nyawalo

This course introduces students to sociopolitical issues and cultures across national contexts through an analysis of popular music and its role in various settings. Students will examine the ways in which popular music both shapes and is shaped by social, economic, and political conditions around the world and in different historical moments. Students will study how musicians have affected and engaged with issues and movements that include the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950’s and 1960’s as well as contemporary Black Lives Matter protests in the United States, the fight against Apartheid in South Africa, cultural and political revolutions in Chile and China, the French revolution, immigration and xenophobia in contemporary France, race relations in Cuba and Brazil, the role of music in Islamic cultures, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Afrocentrism and Pan-Africanism, the Mau Mau anti-colonial fight for independence in Kenya, as well as postcolonial realities in Nigeria. The course will incorporate readings and tools of analyses from disciplines such as history, ethnomusicology, media studies, as well as comparative cultural and literary studies.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

On Common Ground: Mexico and the U.S.
Julia O'Hara

Mexico and the U.S. share one of the world's most important international partnerships. How has this relationship developed, and why has it become so tense? What does the greater good mean for the people of both nations? This class explores these and other questions through the history, politics and culture linking people on both sides of the border.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Villains and Antiheroes
Niamh J. O’Leary

This seminar asks if villains can serve the greater good and why we love good stories about bad guys. How do we as a society decide what makes a person "bad," and what value do we attach to that label? How has our understanding of a historical person's relative villainy or heroism changed over time? Together, we will consider the definitions of heroism and villainy, debate whether you can work toward justice from outside the system, and study nontraditional approaches to the good-from revenge narratives, to tales of vigilante justice, to fortunate falls, to damaged or despicable "everyman" heroes.

This course includes a unit focused on issues of diversity and inclusion.

 

American Indians, American Laws
Frank Rzeczkowski

Indians were the first inhabitants of what would become the United States – yet not until 1924 did all Native Americans become U.S. citizens. This course will examine the complex, unique, and often conflict-ridden relationship between Native American and the country they found themselves contained in, and examine the struggle of Native peoples to become equal – yet remain separate – within American society.

 

Marriage: Crisis and Renewal

Marita von Weissenberg

How do we know what marriage is? How, when, and why does marriage challenge or renew the greater good, and how can we even know? This course seeks to complicate our assumptions of marriage by exploring what marriage has been, is, and might yet become within the Western tradition. We will examine notions of marriage by examining ways history, law, psychology, and literature – to name a few – study marriage.

 

Locked-up Living

Nathan Wendt, S.J.

Incarceration reflects and conditions multifarious aspects of contemporary society and life in the United States. Systemic incarceration forms who we are as a society and persons. It says much about who we say God is, the values of our society, and who we become. Incarceration affects you and me. It affects our present and future position in society. The seminar explores the roots of incarceration in the United States, its relation with the Biblical God, race, culture, and the human subject, while delving into practices of punishment, survival, restoration, and justice. Through a combination of close reading of texts, research, and shared reflection through discussion, students will engage the subject of incarceration in ways that challenge and propel them into critical thinkers, active listeners, intentional speakers, and competent social participants of concern and mercy.

 

Addition: Science and Society

Hanna Wetzel

Addiction has been a part of the human experience for thousands of years. It impacts nearly every one of our lives to varying extents. From drugs like the caffeine in our morning coffee to the tragedy of the opioid epidemic, it is an unavoidable reality. In this seminar will explore addiction from all angles, including the science, historical perspectives, societal impacts, the legal side, first-hand accounts, and the problems with equity surrounding addiction. We will challenge each other to determine “what is addiction?” and “how should it be treated?” through the course of the semester as we learn about this complex topic.

  

Ireland, Culture, & Film
Timothy White

Employing film as a means of expressing and critiquing culture, this course explores the development of Irish nationalism and those who were not fully included in historic conceptions of Irish national identity. How did Irish nationalism marginalize women, Protestants, travellers, emigrants, new arrivals, and the poor in society? Have recent changes in Ireland contributed to a more inclusive national conception of the greater good? How has Northern Ireland developed a separate culture? Has historic Protestant ascendancy given way to parity of esteem and a true peace since the Good Friday Agreement?

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Fall 2020

Growing Pains
Kelly Austin

Sow elcome to college, that space between adolescence and full-blown adulting. That means the freedoms and responsibilities of adulthood, without the experience. It's a time to explore who you want to be (identity) and what you want to do (vocation). Some psychologists call this developmental phase emerging adulthood. In this section of First-Year Seminar, we'll study the psychological theories of development and see what makes this phase of life unique and interesting and challenging--and sometimes terrifying. After all, they're called "growing pains" for a reason. We'll also examine literature that highlights emerging adulthood, and use those discussions to investigate your own journey on the path to adulthood.

 

State-Sanctioned Violence in the U.S.

ShaDawn Battle

On February 23, 2020, a Black man was gunned down for jogging while Black. His murderers insisted that they were fulfilling a civic duty. This heinous murder flew under the national radar for over a month. But why? Ida B. Wells once argued that the grotesque spectacles of anti-violence during Post-Reconstruction were so common that they "failed to have any visible effect upon the human sentiments of the people of our land." And still today, the ubiquitous scenes of violence enacted against Black bodies have desensitized the nation in teh worst way. This seminar will expose the multi-faceted nature of state-sanctioned, anti-Black violence in the U.S. through literary representations, such as The Hate U Give; critical discourse, such as The New Jim Crow; real case examples, such as the Sandra Bland and Michael Brown murder cases; and through propular media such as 13th and When They See Us. In efforts to arouse empathetic reactions in response to state-sanctioned violence, students will become cultural curators, producing TEDTalks, zines, and protest songs. Students should also expect seminar-style discussions, resulting in the production of critical, analytical, and reflective prose.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Ethics, Justice and the Environment
Brent Blair

We each depend on the environment in obvious and subtle ways. But, how we perceive nature and choose to treat it depends on many factors including time period, culture, and economic status. In this course we will explore these ideas as well as how degraded environments impact human wellbeing differently depending on who you are (e.g., race, class & gender) and where you live. Basic ecological and environmental science principles will be explored.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Slow Food: We Are What We Eat
Kelly Blank

Slow Food is an international movement that began in Italy in 1986, emphasizing Good, Clean, and Fair food. In this First Year Seminar, we will discuss the history, philosophy, and influence of the Slow Food movement worldwide while examining the problems with the modern agricultural machine both in a local and in a global context. Topics of discussion will include the importance of local and seasonal produce, the inherent connections between plate and planet, the water footprint of food, labeling of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms), biodiversity, and the ethics of meat production and consumption.

 

Metaphor, Memes, and the Power of Language

Jane Conzett

What does human language reveal about what we believe? We will explore metaphor and its role in our thinking, examine its use in multiple disciplines, take a dive into memes as a subset of metaphor, and look at the power of langauge "for good" and for malign purposes.

 

Sport at the Service of Humanity
Sr. Rose Ann Fleming

How can sport serve humanity? Selected readings show how sport brings humanity together across global boundaries to celebrate human talent, regardless of religion, race, culture, beliefs, gender and ability. Immersive experiences such as visits and interviews with members of professional teams and NCAA Division I teams, indicate how sport teaches men and women positive values of joy, respect, love, compassion, enlightenment and balance. Dialoguing with sport experts, and attendance at local sports games, enables the class participant to reflect, critique, and discuss, orally and in writing, the principles and values that sport offers humanity, as well as how to address the evils and scandals that can arise when the power of wealth and greed in sport corrupt the sport environment.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Entrepreneurship: How to Outswim the Sharks in the Tank
Mike Halloran

Course description coming soon

 

Transcending Humanity: The New Biology
James Helmer

The American futurist and transhumanist thinker Ray Kurzweil has suggested that the essence of humanity is our creation and employment of technology.In exploring ethical and religious themes in relation to emerging biotechnologies, this seminar will engage "big questions" such as the reality of God/the Transcendent, the meaning of human existence, and the nature of the human condition (e.g., embodiment, life, death, sickness, disease, finitude, moral perfection).The seminar will give particular consideration to the ethics of employing such biotechnologies in order to overcome human limitation and to fundamentally alter the human condition.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

 

The Power of Images: Photography and Social Justice
Johann Le Guelte

We are immersed in a visual culture, where images and iconographies, photographs and videos—whether seen on TV, the Internet or other digital platforms—determine the contours of our social identity and impact our perception of the world. Visual representations are undeniably powerful. So what can they teach us about issues of social justice? This course will examine how, exactly, images function and often mediate our understanding of history and the present. Topics covered will include photography and race, gender identity, migration, activism, politics, fashion, and more.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

#CollegeCulture
Jacki Lyon

Many first year students arrive on campus excited for the anticipated “college experience,” but what does this passage look like? #CollegeCulture examines college social justice themes including the hookup culture, racism, mental health as well as gender issues. Through nonfiction texts, academic research and expert speakers, students will examine normative beliefs as well as causes and effects related to these ethical and social concepts. The course is academically rigorous founded in research papers, reflective writing, and class presentations. #College Culture will prepare students to become active members in the community of scholars who embrace serving the Greater Good mission of Xavier.

 

Can Only One Religion Be True?
William Madges

Throughout history, Christianity has claimed to be the true religion. In light of the fact that there are many good people who are not Christian, can't more than one religion be true? But if religious beliefs and practices are different, how can all be true? The seminar explores what we mean by truth and salvation, and how to assess religious claims to truth.

This course includes a unit focused on issues of diversity and inclusion.

 

Food on the Move: From Ship to Shore

Margaret Martin

In this FYS, we explore food on the move, from ancient Roman olive oil to South African wine, from wars "won on their stomachs" to high-tech military labs, from banana boats to modern shipping containers. Our plates are full--of history, technology, logistics, economics, politics, ethics, and more.

 

The Human Need for Narrative
Anne McCarty

Story? Who needs it? For a phenomenon that seems to serve little practical purpose for human survival, narrative plays a significant and ongoing role in our lives. In this class, we'll explore various facets and functions of story and consider the following questions. How do we shape and how are we shaped by narrative? How do we employ narrative as we attempt to understand, cope with, and modify our past, present, and future both as individuals and as a society? How do the stories we currently produce and consume contribute to or detract from the greater good?

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

The Art of Expression: Cultivating Creativity for Balance, Growth, and Community

Madeleine Mitchell

Anyone can be an artist, but many people don't see themselves as one. This seminar explores how creative expression is an integral part of being human and how it contributes to personal and intellectual growth, meaningful life work, and stronger communities. In this course, we will examine various roles of artistic expression in society: healer, teller of hard truths, voice of solidarity, and catalyst for social change. Students will study and research examples of art movements, engage with local artists, and create individual works of art.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

You, Me, and #MeToo: American Feminism and the Rise of #MeToo
Robert Bradley Nestheide

Recent high-profile cases of sexual harassment and abuse saw the popularization of the phrase "Me Too" and its rise to prominence as a succinct an empathetic expression of solidarity with the long-standing struggle of women for social, political, and economic equality. This course will examine the history and politics of American feminism and women's movements with a particular focus on sexual harassment, sexual abuse, and the emergence of the #MeToo movement. Additionally, the course will examine the role of modern social media and internet communications in both the spread of the movement and in its increased success in bringing social, political, and legal repercussions to sexual abusers.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Infectious Diseases and the Cultural Politics of Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
Mich Nyawalo

In this course, students will study representations of infectious diseases and their impact on society through an analysis of literary works of fiction, historical books, as well as ethnographic texts. Students will study how a variety of authors, stemming from different national and historical contexts, center their works on human responses to pandemics in order to provide specific political and cultural insights. Students will also explore the ways in which social attitudes, rhetoric, actions, and policies regarding the spread of infectious diseases have often been shaped by the cultural politics of race, class, gender, and sexual mores. The course will cover the following specific topics (among others): the social impact of the 1665-1666 Great Plague of London, xenophobic responses to the spread of the bubonic plague in San Francisco’s China Town in 1900, the impact of systemic racism in contributing to the spread of tuberculosis in urban African-American communities, state responses to the AIDS epidemic in the United States and abroad, as well as fictional representations of infectious diseases. Recent cultural analyses of COVID-19’s impact will also be presented to students.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

On Common Ground: Mexico and the U.S.
Julia O'Hara

Mexico and the U.S. share one of the world's most important international partnerships. How has this relationship developed, and why has it become so tense? What does the greater good mean for the people of both nations? This class explores these and other questions through the history, politics and culture linking people on both sides of the border.

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Villains and Antiheroes
Niamh J. O’Leary

This seminar asks if villains can serve the greater good and why we love good stories about bad guys. How do we as a society decide what makes a person "bad," and what value do we attach to that label? How has our understanding of a historical person's relative villainy or heroism changed over time? Together, we will consider the definitions of heroism and villainy, debate whether you can work toward justice from outside the system, and study nontraditional approaches to the good-from revenge narratives, to tales of vigilante justice, to fortunate falls, to damaged or despicable "everyman" heroes.

This course includes a unit focused on issues of diversity and inclusion.

 

Pollinators: Birds, Bees, Sneeze
Ann Ray

Flowering plants are the dominant organisms in nearly every terrestrial ecosystem on the planet. Humans rely on flowering plants for food, shelter, warmth, fiber, pharmaceuticals, and for the beauty and richness they bring to our lives. One cannot, however, consider the diversity and abundance of flowering plants without considering the crucial role of pollinators in their biology and evolution. Our planet is facing a global biodiversity crisis, and pollinator populations are threatened worldwide. In this course, we will explore the biology of flowering plants, the natural history and diversity of pollinators, the importance of pollinators in human culture, and the conservation of pollinators. This seminar offers exploration of ecological principles, and will help students to cultivate scientific literacy and environmental ethics.

 

It's Alive!: From Frankenstein to Artificial Intelligence
David Reid

In this multidisciplinary seminar, we’ll begin with a close reading of Mary Shelley’s timeless 1818 novel Frankenstein and will trace its evolution into the pop-culture icon it has become. Included in the first part of the course will be literary analysis that situates Shelley’s masterpiece in historical and philosophical context. In the second half of the course, we will extend the themes and ideas of Frankenstein into our modern world of artificial intelligence, considering issues of The Common Good along the way. The course materials will include four novels, one biography and several films. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein…200 years old…and yet…it’s alive!

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.


Confederate Monuments
Frank Rzeczkowski

This seminar examines the current controversies over monuments to the Confederacy through an examination of the broader historical, social, cultural, and political contexts surrounding the issue. We will also explore the ideas and purposes behind memorialization in a broader sense (including on Xavier’s campus), and seek to understand the decision-making process behind memorialization and the messages memorials seek to convey.

 

Walking: An Historical Act

Kathleen Smythe

Walking is one of the hallmarks of being human. And yet, as 21st-century humans, we either take it for granted or rarely engage in it. This course aims to correct both of these cultural failings. This is an experiential learning course. We will walk, we will read, we will explore, we will talk to people we meet on the way, and we will share with each other what we learn.

 

Gimme More!: A History of Stuff

Amy Whipple

This class will explore the history and ethics of consumerism in Western society from the 1700s to the present. How have people made stuff, sold stuff, designed stuff, and decided who gets stuff? And why have people wanted all this stuff anyway?

 

Race in the Digital Age

Kayla Wheeler

This course will take an intersectional approach to explore the role that the Internet has had on our understanding of race in the United States and beyond. While often imagined as a post-race space, this course will show how the Internet has been central to constructing, policing, and challenging racial formations in the 21st century. Special attention will be paid to social media, apps, virtual reality, and video games. Topics covered include the digital divide, the Black Lives Matter movement, GamerGate, social media influencers and the rise of TikTok. 

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.

 

Ireland, Culture, & Film
Timothy White

Employing film as a means of expressing and critiquing culture, this course explores the development of Irish nationalism and those who were not fully included in historic conceptions of Irish national identity. How did Irish nationalism marginalize women, Protestants, travellers, emigrants, new arrivals, and the poor in society? Have recent changes in Ireland contributed to a more inclusive national conception of the greater good? How has Northern Ireland developed a separate culture? Has historic Protestant ascendancy given way to parity of esteem and a true peace since the Good Friday Agreement?

This course addresses issues of diversity and inclusion throughout the semester.