Management and Entrepreneurship

The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: What factors in the management curriculum influence this perception?

Rashmi H. Assudani, Ph.D.
Mentor: David Burns, D.B.A. (Marketing)

Rashmi H. Assudani, Ph.D.Acknowledgements:

I'd like to extend my appreciation to the Ignatian Mentoring Program for providing this opportunity to me. I would also like to express my thanks to my mentor David Burns and Debra Mooney for their tremendous support.

Central Idea

The current corporate world is riddled with fraud and corporate scandals. Many times the perception of what is 'ethical' (or not) may be blurred. This project seeks to examine the factors in the management curriculum that influence the perception of students of ethical and socially responsible business practices. I have started with the hypothesis that if ethics are part of the active discourse in a course, students are likely to be more sensitive to make ethical and socially responsible (business) decisions. I conducted this research in two subsequent semesters in the MGMT 300 (Managerial Behavior) course that I teach at the undergraduate level.

Literature

In the rise of corporate scandals, graduate business schools are being held responsible for developing ethical business leaders (adapted from Evans, Trevino and Weaver, 2006). From that perspective, it is assumed that a course integrated with ethics is likely to produce conscientious students - students who may be better equipped to handle the vagaries of business decisions in a more informed manner. In the context of Jesuit and Ignatian pedagogy, this project aims to examine whether an active discourse in a course taught to the undergraduate students inspires them to make ethically sound (business) decisions by being attentive and conscious to the decisions they make and by reflecting upon the various stakeholders (shareholders, employees, customers, society at large, natural environment, etc.) their decisions have an impact upon.

Course information (MGMT 300 - Managerial Behavior)

MGMT 300 (Williams College of Business Undergraduate Core Curriculum) aims to introduce Xavier undergraduate business students to the various aspects of human behavior such as organizational culture, global management, ethics, motivation, diversity, and leadership that influence the complex process of managing any organization. The concepts covered in this course are relevant and applicable to any organization - be it a for-profit company such as Proctor and Gamble or a non-governmental organization such as the American Red Cross or an institution such as any government agency.

In its current form, this course first began in 1990, and it currently serves approximately 450 students at XU every year. It focuses on the key question of 'why do some organizations/managers perform better than others and what explains the failure of some organizations/managers' Managing in these turbulent times can be very challenging. Therefore, it is important for managers of today to possess management skills and abilities that can allow them to ensure total organizational effectiveness in an ethical and socially responsible manner. The primary objective of this course is to equip the students with the skills that are needed to be successful managers. Thus, the primary focus of this class is to enable the students to:

  • Become familiar with the terminology, concepts, research and theory related to Managerial Behavior
  • Understand the work processes in workplaces and the various challenges that managers face from their various stakeholders
  • Acquire an enhanced ability to influence these processes in an informed manner, and
  • Develop the skill-sets required for managing successfully - these include team-work (developing interpersonal relations, communicating, planning, organizing), leadership skills, and skills such as critical thinking (including ethics and strategic thinking) and problem solving.

As a part of the MGMT 300 course (core course), the final project for students is to examine, in teams, strategies for companies (such as Proctor and Gamble, Pepsi Co., Google) that they select. They act as consultants to these companies, and their role is to advise the company about a possible strategy and its implementation for making the organization more effective. As a part of this project, they collect the information about the internal environment of the company (such as corporate strategy - what business is the company in), other information about the company such as top management, technology issues, ethical issues, economic issues, etc. They also collect information about elements in the external environment of the company (such as competition, customers, suppliers, economic trends, etc.) With the information available to them, the student teams are required to suggest what strategy (or a combination of strategies) will be most appropriate for their company to sustain a competitive advantage.

Study

In Fall of 2006, the focus on ethics and socially responsible business practices was much less than in Spring 2007. While we discuss ethics and social responsibility in our MGMT 300 class, the students were not necessarily expected to tie the subject matter of ethics in their projects. I administered a survey instrument across 43 students - this instrument examined students' perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they suggest to these for-profit companies. This is a reliable and a valid scale called the PRESOR (Singhapakdi et al., 1996). Since I had not specifically asked them to consider ethical implications in their final project, I anticipated that the perception of what the students consider an 'effective' organization will be more closely tied to the organization's financial bottom-line than to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices.

For the Spring 2007 course, I have made substantive changes to the structure of the course. Early in the semester, I discussed a chapter on ethics and social responsibility. Ethics was an important component of our class discussion in other chapters that we covered. I also tied the subject matter of ethics more closely to the final project. The students were specifically asked to consider the ethical implications of their proposed strategy. I will again run the survey instrument closer to the end of the semester across 60 students to examine their perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they have suggested to these for-profit companies. I would anticipate that the perception of the students of an effective organization will be at least as closely tied to the organization's financial bottom-line as well as to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices.

Findings

This is a longitudinal study across two different semesters - I have just finished collecting the data in May, 2007. Across semester differences will be apparent after the second round of data collection. However, a crude cursory glance at the Fall 2006 data suggests that students perceive that ethics and socially responsible business practices are important for the success of a business. This is contrary to what my anticipation of the findings was. I am curious to see what the data from the Spring 2007 semester suggests and how these two data sets compare with each other.

In case there is a substantive difference across the two data sets, I will be drawn to a hypothesis that an active discourse about ethics and socially responsible business practices has an impact on the perception of students. However, should there not be much difference across the two data sets; does that mean that an active discourse is worthless in the classrooms Perhaps not - this finding will help me develop a hypothesis that macro-level institutional influences such as the ones at a Jesuit university (Xavier) embed the students in an ethical discourse. In that event, both the macro-level institutional forces as well as the micro-level individual courses are important to encourage the conversation of ethics. Together, both of these are likely to encourage the internalization of ethics and social responsibility.

Conclusion

"...business students believe they can do a better job of serving all stakeholders - of serving society - than today's business leaders can (The Aspen Institute, 2003). All educators have to do, the students say, is give them the tools to make that happen" (adapted from Samuelson, 2006).

This is exactly what my research project is attempting to find out - this project is, therefore, expected to drive our attention to these various factors/tools that can equip the students to make ethically sound decisions.

Assudani, R., Chinta R., Manolis, C., Burns, D. (in press for April, 2011). "Pedagogy on students" perceptions of the importance of ethics and social responsibility in business firms. Ethics and Behavior.

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From Pentagon to Heptagon - Making Jesuit Values Pragmatic

Ravi Chinta, Ph.D.
Mentor: Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco, Ph.D. (Modern Languages)

Introduction
Ravi Chinta, Ph.D. In light of the changing times, the more competitive nature of higher education, and pressures to increase enrollment to head off economic issues in the long term, the Jesuit university is called upon to examine its mission and long term goals. Jesuit universities, based on a 450 year old model of Jesuit ideals and academic rigor and excellence, must not only sustain this marriage of ideas and excellence, but strengthen their focus to include new growth goals. The reality of this expansion includes increased faculty, employees and students from a wider range of diverse backgrounds. How is it possible to continue to grow in size, yet also grow in the level of commitment to a contemporary vision based on the ideals first set forth by St. Ignacio de Loyola Great companies are constantly improving, changing and innovating. But researchers have also discovered that what makes these companies great is their stead fast commitment to their mission (Collins and Porras 1994). This position paper will examine the pentagon model set forth by Xavier University President's Discernment Group (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009), and will expand upon the model by integrating aspects of business and management in order to improve the efficiency of the organization while at the same time permitting significant innovation in design and operation.

The remainder of this paper is organized into four sections. In the following section, we outline the pentagon model that describes the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. Next, we present a heptagon model with innovation and efficiency as two additional vertices that contribute to making the pentagon model more pragmatic. In the third section that follows, we discuss the linkages between the five Gifts and innovation and efficiency. Finally, we present the implications of the heptagon model for practical application.

The Pentagon Model

Dulles (2007: p.10) states that a gift of grace is conferred not for one's personal sanctification but for the benefit of others. The President's Discernment Group at Xavier University identified five expressions or "gifts" of Ignatian Heritage: Mission, Reflection, Discernment, Solidarity and Kinship, and Service Rooted in Justice and Love (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009).

Five gifts of ignatian heritage diagram

The Mission of Jesuit universities focuses on academic excellence that is rooted in a Catholic faith tradition. The Gift of Mission, as identified by the discernment group, calls for the university to attract and nurture students and employees who are interested in understanding and affirming this heritage. Xavier is part of a network of 28 universities and 52 high schools in the United States, and 160 institutions worldwide, with a heritage dating back to 1548 (Mooney, D., 2002 p. 1). A Jesuit education values academic excellence and rigor, an education that challenges students to reach their fullest potential and "...seeks to develop the whole student-mind, body and spirit" (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A desktop Primer). The Jesuit value of Magis or more is an integral part of the mission. Magis is "striving for more, striving for excellence, according to Marik and Mooney, (2004, p. 12) Magis involves passionately working towards excellence, seeking greater knowledge and finding more purposeful ways in which to carry out our life goals and work. The Latin root excel conveys the sense of rising out or rising above. That's what excellence is: rising above ourselves, and lifting up those around us, by getting the most from our talents and gifts" (Lowney 2009, p. 80).

A Jesuit Education values Cura personalis, "Care of the (Whole, Individual) Person" (Mooney, 2002, p. 2). As part of its mission, faculty at a Jesuit institution must consider the variety of needs of students, both academic and otherwise. Encouraging students to find appropriate ways to deal with stress, to set priorities, to balance work with reflection and to meet the responsibilities of various academic pursuits during the semester, faculty strive to educate and care for the whole person. Finding God in all things, in all circumstances of life is another Jesuit Value inherent in the Mission. This mission challenges faculty, staff and students to consider encounters with others and our environment in a positive manner; to see the good in everything and every experience.

Reflection has been identified as another gift of Ignatian Heritage. This gift applies as much today as it did 500 years ago, during the time of the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola. In What do we mean by an Ignatian Vision" Steve Yandell writes "reflection is the way we discover and compose the meaning of our experience. Reflection is a kind of reality testing" (Yandell, 2005). Luther G. Smith refers to asking a series of self-reflective questions to determine positive results of life experiences (in Mooney, 2002, p. 13). "The Gift of Reflection invites us to pause and consider the world around us and our place within it. It calls us to infuse a culture of attention, reflection and reverence throughout the university" (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36).

The Gift of Discernment involves a decision making process that has potential application to all aspects of daily living, including professional and personal circumstances. Traub (2009) defines discernment in his glossary of Ignatian terms as "A process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option in not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (p. 1). Dr. Tom Merrill writes that the essence of discernment is ,To step back or outside the contextual meaning in order to more fully understand spiritual truth beyond the immediate," (in Mooney, 2002, p. 8). Through the Gift of Discernment applied to one's life and work, decisions regarding day to day challenges as well as life changing experiences can be seen as positive contributions to our world.

The Gift of Solidarity and Kinship is an invitation to learn from all human companions from a variety of backgrounds within and beyond the university setting and to listen and experience life's many situations alongside others. This gift challenges all to look beyond the influences of pop culture and self-interests in order to become fully involved in the community of the university and beyond. Being alert to the needs of others and aware of how to apply personal skills and knowledge, the Gift of Solidarity and Kinship supports the importance of hands-on learning, experiencing and engaging with others as part of life's journey. As Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., stated in his October 6, 2000 address at Santa Clara University, Solidarity is learned through contact rather than through concepts (in Traub, 2009, p. 10).

The final gift of Ignatian heritage is the Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love. This gift presents an invitation to "community engagement as an expression of faith that promotes justice" (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36). Saint Ignatius wanted love to be present not only in words, but also in deeds. This means he calls for us to be responsive to those who unjustly suffer. The Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so themselves (Ellacuría, 2001). With this gift comes the realization that we have the responsibility to pay attention to the social repercussions of our actions or lack thereof on society. "With the help of others and especially the poor, we want to play our role as students, as teachers and researchers, and as Jesuit university in society," (Kolenbach, p. 160).

Need to Enhance the Pentagon Model

The five Gifts pentagon model of the Ignatian heritage described above is an excellent conceptual map that provides guidance for anyone willing to put into practice the Ignatian values. Mission lays the foundation for academic excellence grounded in a Catholic faith tradition. Reflection allows for one to pause considering the world around. Discernment invokes God's spirit to emphasize rational thought in decision making. Finally, solidarity and kinship along with service rooted in justice and love touch on nurturing relationships and providing contributions to society. Learning results from what an individual thinks and does and only from what the individual does and thinks (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Taken together, the five Gifts laid out in the pentagon model provide the basis for understanding the Ignatian heritage and enabling an individual to engage in Ignatian spirituality.

However, the pentagon model falls short in several aspects, and identifying these gaps is a necessary prelude to enhancing the effectiveness of the pentagon model. First, while all the five Gifts work effectively as an integrated set, individually each of them can become ineffective to achieve the desired end result of creating positive change in either internal or external environments. Kirby et al. (2006) detail the experiences of a department of six faculty members in negotiating spirituality in a Jesuit, Catholic university, only to uncover contradictory conditions that confounded their experiences with little guidance. Second, goal setting for each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is not well defined, and this leads to the next problem. Third, measurement of progress in each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is either not explicitly specified or easy to accomplish. Fourth, the five Gifts pentagon model does not specify any process that can guide an individual to take a step-by-step approach, going from mission to service rooted in justice and love. In summary, while the pentagon model is conceptually elegant and self-explanatory, it is also discursive and requires further elaboration to enhance its capacity for pragmatic guidance.

It is essential to give meaning to theoretical concepts to facilitate their use in practice. A number of experimentally controlled studies suggest that the degree of flexible adaptation to new settings is related to the degree to which concepts, procedures and tool designs are understood by learners rather than simply learned by rote (e.g., Adams et al., 1988; Bransford, Zech, Schwartz et al., 2000). A theory must illuminate, explain and guide practice and, if it cannot do those things it is not a theory neither good nor bad. Wishes and hopes are not theory. Sermons and preaching are not theory either. Broudy (1977) discusses the "replicative," "applicative," and "interpretive" aspects of knowing and notes that most assessments have focused almost exclusively on the first two. Broudy (1977) recommends that more interpretive enhancements of theories are needed to make them useful to society. Our paper is an interpretive enhancement.

We propose that the five Gifts pentagon model can be enhanced by adding two extra lenses through which the pentagon model must be viewed. By making use of two key concepts from the business management knowledge, we argue that the pentagon model can be made more pragmatic. In particular, we aver that innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that can be used in conjunction with the five Gifts pentagon model. By wedding business management knowledge with the spiritual knowledge exemplified by Ignatian values, we believe that the shortfalls identified in the five Gifts pentagon model can be addressed adequately. In essence, we make the pentagon model into a heptagon model. Before we present the heptagon model (which is the pentagon model plus innovation and efficiency), we wish to address why we chose these two business concepts for our paper.

Innovation and Efficiency

We believe that the gaps identified in the pentagon model would be best addressed by the inclusion of innovation and efficiency as two new lenses that provide several benefits, namely, a structured goal setting process, a tool for measuring progress, and a well-defined future orientation for our work. However, we humans are limited in our knowledge. "The economic problem of society," according to Friedrich Hayek, is the problem of utilization of knowledge not given to anyone in its totality (1945: p.520). The same argument that Hayek has made about society holds true for organizations and even individuals. Humans are not omniscient Gods, that is, they are limited in their knowledge about future. While we know the past and present relatively better than the future, one significant task for us in the present is essentially on how to change the status-quo for the better, given our limited knowledge about the future. Innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that capture this ambivalence (the temporal balancing across present and future time frames) suffered by organizations and individuals. Efficiency is predominantly focused on improving the status-quo, while innovation is predominantly focused on developing change to create the future state/s. Both are essential for a firm since survival is a prerequisite for advancement into future. Sun Tzu (1963 translation) elegantly put this conundrum of temporal tension best when he exhorted, "Survive before you advance, or else nothing matters."

Business management knowledge suggests that an organization that is not adequately enabling and motivating new possibilities is more likely to witness its own decline a destruction of its own economic structure that will have been induced from within (Moran and Ghoshal, 1999: p.410). Every organization is in a constant state of vigorous but creative tension, as suggested by Joseph Schumpeter (1942), to innovate for future time periods, and at the same time to survive in the present time period. In this familiar evolutionary process, a firm creates and realizes new value and markets, while gradually "handing on the fruits of progress" to others in older markets (Schumpeter, 1947: p.155). In other words, sustainable growth is the talisman for effective firms; and sustainable growth can only be achieved through innovation and efficiency.

Enhanced Heptagon Model

We believe that our heptagon model is not a mere nuanced theoretical enhancement of the pentagon model, but is an essential extension that makes the original model more pragmatic. To be pragmatically useful to individuals, a theory must be grounded in a deep understanding of the logic that allows easy translation of the theory into practice. Innovation and efficiency are key "implementation" variables that are widely used to assess the capacity for survival and adaptation of organizations in changing environments. Our expanded heptagon model is capable of effectively tapping and channeling the vast and largely unexploited reserves of human knowledge and aspirations through innovation (creating tomorrow's world) and efficiency (managing today's world).

Efficiency seems to be important in all domains. It includes a high degree of consistency (lack of variability) that maximizes success and minimizes failure. Business programs like Six Sigma provide a good example of how efficiency is relevant to organizations as well as to individuals (e.g., Pande, Neuman, and Cavanagh, 2000). People who are high on efficiency can rapidly retrieve and accurately apply appropriate knowledge and skills to solve a problem or understand an explanation. Examples include experts who have a great deal of experience with certain types of problems; for example doctors who have seen many instances of diseases in many different people or who have frequently performed a particular type of surgery. They can diagnose and treat a new patient quickly and effectively. When choosing a surgeon for a particular procedure, many potential patients wisely ask, "How many of these have you successfully performed previously" Cost reductions, processes automation, cycle time reductions, faster assets turnover, just-in-time supply chains, total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement projects are all part of the extensive empirical research in business on efficiency. "Faster, better and cheaper" is the clarion call in the realm of efficiency.

However, there are also potential downsides of an overemphasis on efficiency. For example, Hatano and Oura (2003) discuss "routine experts" who become very good at solving particular sets of problems but do not continue to learn throughout their lifetimes (except in the sense of becoming even more efficient at their old routines). This is where an emphasis on innovation comes into play. Our argument is not to eliminate efficiency but to complement it so that people can adapt optimally. In short, we assume that efficiency does not have to be the enemy of innovation and creativity (e.g. Bransford and Stein, 1993). Innovation is often preceded by a sense of disequilibrium that signals that certain processes or ways of thinking (e.g., previously learned routines) are not quite working properly. At other times, new ideas may simply emerge from interactions with tools and people without a prior sense that something was wrong or needed to be fixed. New products, new markets, new technologies, new businesses, new management paradigms and out-of-the-box thinking mark the considerable empirical research in business on innovation. Future-perfect (ex: we will have done X or Y in 10 years) thinking is the first step in abstraction before future visions are actualized in concrete experience/s (Kolb and Kolb, 2005). Scenario planning is a major activity in strategic planning exercises in large corporations. Figure 2 below depicts our heptagon model utilizing innovation and efficiency as the two new nodes.

Enhanced model of gifts of ignatian heritage

In Table 1 below, we show with examples how efficiency and innovation concepts can make the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage more practical.

Table 1: Innovation and Efficiency as Two Lenses
Efficiency Innovation

Gift Efficiency Innovation
Mission Current mission of Xavier University focuses on educating students intellectually, morally and spiritually. Translating this mission into action is demonstrated by the university's emphasis on academic excellence and purposeful work to carry out one's goals. This means rising above ourselves and getting the most from our talents and gifts while lifting up others. Dessler (1999) suggested that one way to build commitment to an organization is to communicate a clear mission and ideology. The current mission can be enhanced by broadening its scope. For example, instead of focusing on the surrounding community, the focus could include a more global definition of community (not merely new geographies, but also conceptual enhancements). The green movement of today and sustainability could become a more integral and explicit part of the mission. Communicating the mission to graduate students, often missed in this realm, would be an important enhancement to the current mission. Students will become the ambassadors to carry out the university mission in the global community. While broadening the current mission, one must preserve the core and stimulate progress, Identify the core nonnegotiable and then cultivate strategic freedom to change everything else as circumstances require. Innovation in mission should make the university more adaptable to changes in external environment so that the university becomes a long-lived entity.
Reflection This is best illustrated by the concept of the "examen" first developed by Ignatius in the 16th century, wherein one pauses during one"s day to reflect upon the context in which one lives. A candid, analytical introspection would surface potential gaps and identify probable strategies to make the current "ways of life" more efficient. Interestingly, the Harvard Business School has developed staying the course methodology to make current processes more efficient (Lowney, 2009: p.176). Innovation in reflection is essentially the same process of reflection repeated for future time frames. This is essential because one needs to continuously monitor progress in order to ensure effective implementation of strategies. "No action plan can foresee the many obstacles and changing conditions that people will face over the weeks and months it takes to implement a strategy"(Luecke, 2006, pp.96-97). Setting up processes for continuously scanning and monitoring the external and internal environments is a key activity here. For example, dialogue meetings with external and internal stakeholders, external speakers and experts visiting the university, forward looking strategy sessions, delegation of goals setting processes to individual levels and course enhancements would be some ways to perform the task of innovative reflection. Critiques based on candid introspection of our current ways and conduct must be encouraged.
Discernment Discernment is "a process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (Traub, 2009). This is a decision making process that has implications for direct connection between professional and personal circumstances. The whole subject of ethics in business centers around efficient discernment wherein God's spirit is invoked effortlessly in all we do. Innovation in the discernment process involves broadening the Catholic perspective through which God's spirit is invoked to multi-faith invocation. This recognizes that God's spirit transcends all faiths, and that for global communities to benefit from the gift of discernment it is vital to find the omnipresent God's spirit as a rich resource available for all and in all faiths. Being a good human is possible in being a good Christian, or Hindu, or Muslim or Jew or Buddhist, or ethical humanist or one in any other faith. The walls of narrow, separate religions within our hearts must be broken down. Already, Catholic churches are recognizing this inevitable trend, and we witness multi-faith congregations even in churches. Inclusiveness is the critical ingredient in innovative discernment. Multi-stakeholder partnerships (ex: community engagement) would provide alternative perspectives and perhaps lead to paradigm changes that may be necessary for the advancement of the university.
Solidarity and Kinship Efficient solidarity and kinship means that the university should engage with both external and internal stakeholders in ways that are continuously becoming faster, better and cheaper. Some examples are engaging the growing alumni in strategic projects such as fund raising or community engagement for student involvement or faculty research. Continuous improvement of current processes and waste elimination must be pursued by building on existing experiences instead of constantly creating new programs. Extensive research in business establishes that cross-cultural differences exist across US and Asian nations, in particular, in relationships management (Zahra, 2005). Solidarity is learned through contacts rather than through concepts (Kolvenbach, 2008). Funding for greater networking with community partners and subsequent course enhancements should become a critical activity for innovation in solidarity and kinship. Making use of web technologies to globalize the scope of external communities and communicating with them with social networking tools such as Skype, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn will become an integral part of this activity. Facilitating useful interactions with both internal and external stakeholders on a continuous basis will be essential for implementing innovation in relationships management. Viewing the world through the stakeholders' eyes and constantly seeking to create more value for to them will be an important aspect of innovation.
Service rooted in Justice and Love The gift of service rooted in justice and love essentially calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so for themselves, e.g., the downtrodden in society and also the future (unborn) generations (Ellacuria, 2001). However, to be efficient in such representation, one has to first become aware of those who need such assistance. This requires a solid understanding of the inequities and injustices in society (intra-university; communities contiguous to the university and global communities as well) and the ability to prioritize in order to choose and focus efforts of the university. Innovation in service rooted in justice and love goes beyond merely being efficient at it in the present, but being genuinely future-oriented. Concepts such as sustainability, bottom-of-the-pyramid, eco-design, multi-stakeholder partnerships, and triple-bottom-line are becoming more popular in business terminology. One has to progress from awareness of inequities and injustices, and exert efforts to correct the inequities and injustices in society. This has to be a continuous and integrated process rather than a sporadic one. For example, the temptation to start an initiative by establishing a center that then gradually withers away must be avoided. We can also be innovative by applying other gifts such as reflection and discernment to ensure that our service efforts are relevant and futuristic to make the society better. This requires a thorough understanding of the social repercussions of all of our decisions within the university, both intended as well as unintended consequences. For example, the meals served and how they are served have ecological impact (sustainability) that needs to be considered. Contributing to society is a culmination of all the gifts of our Ignatian heritage.

 

Mission Current mission of Xavier University focuses on educating students intellectually, morally and spiritually. Translating this mission into action is demonstrated by the university's emphasis on academic excellence and purposeful work to carry out one's goals. This means rising above ourselves and getting the most from our talents and gifts while lifting up others. Dessler (1999) suggested that one way to build commitment to an organization is to communicate a clear mission and ideology. The current mission can be enhanced by broadening its scope. For example, instead of focusing on the surrounding community, the focus could include a more global definition of community (not merely new geographies, but also conceptual enhancements). The green movement of today and sustainability could become a more integral and explicit part of the mission. Communicating the mission to graduate students, often missed in this realm, would be an important enhancement to the current mission. Students will become the ambassadors to carry out the university mission in the global community. While broadening the current mission, one must preserve the core and stimulate progress, Identify the core nonnegotiable and then cultivate strategic freedom to change everything else as circumstances require. Innovation in mission should make the university more adaptable to changes in external environment so that the university becomes a long-lived entity.

Reflection This is best illustrated by the concept of the "examen" first developed by Ignatius in the 16th century, wherein one pauses during one's day to reflect upon the context in which one lives. A candid, analytical introspection would surface potential gaps and identify probable strategies to make the current "ways of life" more efficient. Interestingly, the Harvard Business School has developed "staying the course" methodology to make current processes more efficient (Lowney, 2009: p.176). Innovation in reflection is essentially the same process of reflection repeated for future time frames. This is essential because one needs to continuously monitor progress in order to ensure effective implementation of strategies. "No action plan can foresee the many obstacles and changing conditions that people will face over the weeks and months it takes to implement a strategy" (Luecke, 2006, pp.96-97). Setting up processes for continuously scanning and monitoring the external and internal environments is a key activity here. For example, dialogue meetings with external and internal stakeholders, external speakers and experts visiting the university, forward looking strategy sessions, delegation of goals setting processes to individual levels and course enhancements would be some ways to perform the task of innovative reflection. Critiques based on candid introspection of our current ways and conduct must be encouraged.

Discernment Discernment is "a process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (Traub, 2009). This is a decision making process that has implications for direct connection between professional and personal circumstances. The whole subject of ethics in business centers around efficient discernment wherein God's spirit is invoked effortlessly in all we do. Innovation in the discernment process involves broadening the Catholic perspective through which God's spirit is invoked to multi-faith invocation. This recognizes that God's spirit transcends all faiths, and that for global communities to benefit from the gift of discernment it is vital to find the omnipresent God's spirit as a rich resource available for all and in all faiths. Being a good human is possible in being a good Christian, or Hindu, or Muslim or Jew or Buddhist, or ethical humanist or one in any other faith. The walls of narrow, separate religions within our hearts must be broken down. Already, Catholic churches are recognizing this inevitable trend, and we witness multi-faith congregations even in churches. Inclusiveness is the critical ingredient in innovative discernment. Multi-stakeholder partnerships (ex: community engagement) would provide alternative perspectives and perhaps lead to paradigm changes that may be necessary for the advancement of the university.

Solidarity and Kinship Efficient solidarity and kinship means that the university should engage with both external and internal stakeholders in ways that are continuously becoming faster, better and cheaper. Some examples are engaging the growing alumni in strategic projects such as fund raising or community engagement for student involvement or faculty research. Continuous improvement of current processes and waste elimination must be pursued by building on existing experiences instead of constantly creating new programs. Extensive research in business establishes that cross-cultural differences exist across US and Asian nations, in particular, in relationships management (Zahra, 2005). Solidarity is learned through contacts rather than through concepts (Kolvenbach, 2008). Funding for greater networking with community partners and subsequent course enhancements should become a critical activity for innovation in solidarity and kinship. Making use of web technologies to globalize the scope of external communities and communicating with them with social networking tools such as Skype, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn will become an integral part of this activity. Facilitating useful interactions with both internal and external stakeholders on a continuous basis will be essential for implementing innovation in relationships management. Viewing the world through the stakeholders' eyes and constantly seeking to create more value for to them will be an important aspect of innovation.

Service rooted in Justice and Love The gift of service rooted in justice and love essentially calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so for themselves, e.g., the downtrodden in society and also the future (unborn) generations (Ellacuria, 2001). However, to be efficient in such representation, one has to first become aware of those who need such assistance. This requires a solid understanding of the inequities and injustices in society (intra-university; communities contiguous to the university and global communities as well) and the ability to prioritize in order to choose and focus efforts of the university. Innovation in service rooted in justice and love goes beyond merely being efficient at it in the present, but being genuinely future-oriented. Concepts such as sustainability, bottom-of-the-pyramid, eco-design, multi-stakeholder partnerships, and triple-bottom-line are becoming more popular in business terminology. One has to progress from awareness of inequities and injustices, and exert efforts to correct the inequities and injustices in society. This has to be a continuous and integrated process rather than a sporadic one. For example, the temptation to start an initiative by establishing a center that then gradually withers away must be avoided. We can also be innovative by applying other gifts such as reflection and discernment to ensure that our service efforts are relevant and futuristic to make the society better. This requires a thorough understanding of the social repercussions of all of our decisions within the university, both intended as well as unintended consequences. For example, the meals served and how they are served have ecological impact (sustainability) that needs to be considered. Contributing to society is a culmination of all the gifts of our Ignatian heritage.

The "efficiency" lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the current time frame in which they manifest themselves. The intended result would be greater efficiencies in all of our current activities. For example, cost reductions, waste reductions, process improvements, more efficient communication channels, and doing more with less in all the facets of current lives. The "innovation" lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the future time frames in which they will impact our lives. For example, new business processes, new leadership initiatives, new curricula, new geographies, new partnerships, new demographic markets, and new visions, etc. Our main thesis in this paper is to provide a temporal backbone that spans the present and the future time frames for the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. We believe efficiency and innovation as two lenses provide this structural basis and therefore the heptagon model is an enhancement to the original pentagon model.

Conclusion

In the above paragraphs we summarized the pentagon model (the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage), we described how innovation and efficiency has two additional lenses, we outlined the heptagon model and finally we discussed the linkages between the five Gifts and efficiency and innovation.

In his book "Scholarship Reconsidered" Boyer (1990) described four kinds of scholarship: the scholarship of discovery (research), the scholarship of integration (synthesis), the scholarship of practice (application), and the scholarship of teaching (pedagogy). Furthermore Weick (1989) suggested a fifth stream by defining the scholarship of common sense as the epistemology of disciplined imagination. Our enhanced heptagon model, we believe, demonstrates scholarship of practice and disciplined and pragmatic imagination. Kurt Lewin argued that "nothing is as practical as a good theory" (1945: 129). We contend that the obverse is equally true. Nothing is as impractical as an abstruse theory. It is thus essential that any attempts to strengthen the link between theory and practice must be strongly encouraged. Our paper is one such effort.

The five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage provide the basis for such intimate connection with God. Yet this spiritual knowledge remains abstruse. When combined with business knowledge, it enlightens an individual with pragmatic guidelines in terms of innovation and efficiency as lenses for deeper insights. Applying Ignatian guidelines is an inherently social enterprise which constantly impacts families, communities, nations and the global community, not only in the present time, but also in future time frames.


References
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Boyer, E.L. (1990) "Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate" Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Bransford, J. D., Zech, L., Schwartz, D. L., Barron, B. J., Vye, N., and CTGV. (2000) "Design environments that invite and sustain mathematical thinking" In P. Cobb (Ed.) "Symbolizing and Communicating in Mathematics Classrooms" (pp. 275-324). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bransford, J.D. and Stein, B.S. (1993). The Ideal Problem Solver (2nd Ed). New York: Freeman.

Broudy, H. S. (1977) "Types of knowledge and purposes of education" In R. C. Anderson, R. J., Spiro, and W. E. Montague (Eds.), "Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge" (pp. 1-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Collins, J. and Porras, J.I. (1994) "Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies" Harper Collins, New York, NY: Harper Business (p. 89).

Dessler, G. (1999) "How to Earn Your Employees' Commitment" Academy of Management Executive.13(2), 58-68.

Dulles, A. (2007) "The Ignatian charism at the dawn of the 21st century" Jesuit Journeys. 15(2): 10-15.

Ellacuría, I. (1982) "The Task of the Christian University" Convocation Address at the University of Santa Clara, June 12, 1982; Una Universidad para el puebo," Diakonia 6, no. 23 (pp. 5 p.5. reference

Hatano, G., and Oura, Y. (2003) "Commentary: Reconceptualizing school learning using insight from expertise research" Educational Researcher, 32 (8), 26-29

Hayek, F.A. (1945) "The Use of Knowledge in Society" American Economic Review. 35(4): 519-530.

Kirby, E.L., McBride, M.C., Shuler, S., Birkholt, M.J., Danielson, M.A. and Pawlowski, D.R. (2006) "The Jesuit Difference (?): Narratives of Negotiating Spiritual Values and Secular Practices" Communication Studies, 57(1): 87 - 105.

Kolb, A.Y., and Kolb, D.A. (2005) "Experiential Learning Theory Bibliography" Experience Based Learning System, Inc. Cleveland, OH.

Kolenbach, P. (2008) "The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice in American Jesuit Higher Education" In G. W. Traub, SJ (Ed.), "A Jesuit Education Reader" ( pp. 144-161) Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press.

Lewin, K. (1945) "The research center for group dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology" Sociometry. 8:126-135.

Lowney, C. (2009) "Heroic Living" Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press.

Luecke, R. (2006) "Decision making: 5 Steps to Better Results" Boston: Havard Business School Press.

Moran, P. and Ghoshal, S. (1999) "Markets, Firms, and the Process of Economic Development" Academy of Management Review, 24(3): 390-412.

Marik, P. and Mooney, D. (2004) "Cura What?" Cincinnati, OH: Ignatian Programs, Xavier University (page 3).

Mooney, D. (2002) "Do You Walk Ignatian?: A Compilation of Jesuit Values Expressed in the Work Day" Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University, Mission and Identity.

Jesuit Education and Pedagogy (2010) "A Desktop Primer" Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University, Division of Mission and Identity.

Pande, P. S., Neuman, R. P., and Cavanagh, R. R. (2000) "The Six Sigma way: how GE, Motorola, and other top companies are honing their performance" New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Schumpeter, J. (1942) "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy" London: Unwin University Press.

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Traub, G.W. (2008) "A Jesuit Education Reader" Chicago, IL: Loyola Press. (page 4).

Traub, G.W. and D.K. Mooney (2010) "Ignatian Spirituality among the Professors" Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education., Spring 2010, Number 37, pp.35-38.

Weick, K.E. (1989) "Theory construction as disciplined imagination" Academy of Management Review, 14: 516-531.

Xavier University Cincinnati (2009). Report to the President. p.2 reference.

Yandell, S. (2005) "What Do We Mean by the Ignatian Vision?" Unpublished paper, Xavier University.

Zahra, S.A. (2005) "A theory of international joint ventures: A decade of research" Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 20-28.

Paper presented at the 17th Annual International Conference on Advances in Management, Atlanta, GA, July 14-17, 2010 by Drs. Ravi Chinta, Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco and Debra Mooney.

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Exploring the Role of Jesuit Values in the Experience of Work

Dr. Tamara L. Giluk, Ph.D.
Mentor: Dr. Victoria Zascavage Ph.D. (Secondary and Special Education)

Acknowledgements
I am blessed to work at a University and within a College that is guided by strong core values and facilitates the incorporation of these values into the classroom and our lives. I am grateful for the opportunity that the Ignatian Mentoring Program has provided as well as for the efforts and expertise of my program mentor, Tori Zascavage.

Impetus
The Jesuit ideal gives serious attention to profound questions about the meaning of life; work, of course, plays a large role in many individuals' lives. With the assignment described below, I hoped to give students an opportunity to explore the role that work plays in individuals' lives and how Jesuit values might be integrated into that experience. Many students will be managers and leaders of others and their work in the future. I hoped to encourage students to open their minds and hearts to understand experiences other than their own. In previous semesters, class discussions had brought to the surface assumptions on the part of some of the students that I found to be disturbing, for example, that the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation (i.e., behavior performed for its own sake, engendering enjoyment, accomplishment, pride, etc.) was limited to those who were college-educated and/or in professional-level roles rather than those without a college education and/or in low-skill jobs. My expectation was that understanding individuals' experiences of work would 1) facilitate students' understanding of and respect for others and their work, and 2) shape their thinking about how the Ignatian and Jesuit values so critical to their formation at Xavier can also inform their work experience as well as leadership philosophy and behaviors.

Managerial Behavior Course Overview
Managerial Behavior (MGMT 300) provides an introduction to the theory, policies, and practices of management within organizations. Effective management practices include those that not only serve the interests of the organization, but also meet the needs of the people working in that organization. Management means getting things done through others; thus, a key role for students as managers will be to create the environment and conditions that engage others in accomplishing the organization's goals. Ideally, they are able to enhance the lives of employees and at the same time obtain the best possible results for the organization. Topics addressed include: the role of a manager, history of management thought, managing ethics, decision making, motivation, managing teams, leadership, organizational culture, and organizational change.

Managerial Behavior (MGMT 300) is a business core course required for every business major. It also fulfills social science credits within the broader University core. Students generally take the course as sophomores or juniors.

The Assignment: Meaning of Work Analysis Paper 1
This assignment was intended to help students understand the meaning of work for individuals (i.e., a person's experience of something meaningfulsomething of value--that work provides) and work-related issues that many Americans face in their jobs. It also served as a vehicle through which to explore the role of Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values in the experience of work. Students worked with a partner to complete this assignment to allow for varying backgrounds and perspectives to contribute to the richness of the analysis.

Students drew from several sources to complete the assignment.
Bowe, Bowe, and Streeter's (2001) Gig. This book contains approximately 125 essays based on interviews with American workers in a wide range of jobs, including UPS driver, slaughterhouse human resource director, florist, sports agent, escort, labor support doula, prison guard, city planner, nurse, and funeral home director. Gig is a modern update of Studs Terkel's (1974) Working. Students selected 10 interviews to read and analyze.
Live interview. Students conducted a live interview with someone about his or her job.
Rev. Traub's Do You Speak Ignatian This booklet provides a glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit circles.
Discernment Group II Ignatian Values and Traditions "Wheel." This "wheel," part of Appendix A-1 in Discernment Group II's 2012 Final Report, depicts six Ignatian values and examples of what those values look like as concrete actions.

The latter two sources were provided as resources in integrating Jesuit values (e.g., Cura Personalis, Discernment, Finding God in All Things, Magis, Solidarity and Kinship/Men and Women for Others, Reflection, Service Rooted in Justice and Love) in their analyses.

Students analyzed their interviews with respect to the following questions and wrote an eight- to ten-page paper describing the results of their analyses:

How does the meaning of work differ among the individuals interviewed?
What similarities exist in regard to the meaning of work among the individuals interviewed?
After analyzing the interviews, what do you feel most people expect, want, and need from their jobs?
What indication of Ignatian spirituality or Jesuit values do you see in the individuals' work experiences? What opportunities do you see for individuals or organizations to integrate such values into their work?
What did you learn about work from reading the interviews in Bowe, Bowe, and Streeter's Gig, conducting your own interview and contemplating work through the lens of Jesuit values?

Students' Knowledge of Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values
Prior to the project, I wanted to understand students' current level of knowledge with respect to Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values specified in the assignment instructions: Cura Personalis, Discernment, Finding God in All Things, Magis, Solidarity and Kinship (Men and Women for Others), Reflection, and Service Rooted in Justice and Love. Thus, students completed a brief, informal survey.

Students had the strongest knowledge of the values of Reflection and Finding God in All Things. Most had a basic idea of what these values were and some had a strong enough knowledge base such that they felt equipped to participate in a discussion on these ideas or integrate them into their lives. On average, students had a basic understanding of the values of Solidarity and Kinship (Men and Women for Others) and Service Rooted in Justice and Love. Although students had seen the terms Discernment, Cura Personalis, and Magis, on average they did not really know what these terms meant.

Students estimated that approximately one third of their coursework at Xavier had incorporated at least some of the above values, whether through class discussion, experiences, or assignments. This integration occurred most often in Theology and Philosophy courses, although students also mentioned incorporation of these values in English/Literature, Management, Accounting, Marketing, Economics, Strategic Human Resource Management, and Science.

Post-assignment, students completed the same brief, informal survey regarding their knowledge of the Jesuit values. On average, for those values about which students already had basic or solid knowledge prior to the assignment, their understanding increased, but only slightly. However, for those values for which students recognized the terms but did not know what they meant Discernment, Cura Personalis, and Magis students expressed an increased understanding of these values, conveying that they now had either a basic idea or good knowledge of these values, with some now feeling equipped to discuss these ideas or apply them to their lives.

Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the Experience of Work
Using the Gig interviews as well as their live interview, students were able to see the Jesuit values come to life in people's work. For example, one pair of students portrayed movie director Tamara Jenkins as "showing solidarity" because she uses her skill and talents to serve others. They noted that she makes "movies, such as Slums of Beverly Hills, which inspire people by telling societal truths and opening people's eyes to the struggles of others around them." They highlighted Jenkin's willingness to learn from fellow director Francis Ford Coppola in order to better use her talents to put her vision into movies as further evidence of solidarity and kinship. They also presented U.S. Congressman Barney Frank as exemplifying service rooted in justice and love based on the injustices (e.g., McCarthy hearings and Emmett Till's murder) that motivated him to go into politics; he wanted to change things. They characterized Frank as magis in action because "he used politics as a way of responding generously to the needs of others." Lastly, in their live interview of a Xavier employee who manages students, they noted that she "models the Ignatian value of cura personalis because--she truly views all of the students she interacts with as unique people and cares for all aspects of them, seeing them as more than an employee." They described her concern if students are sick and willingness to talk with students about anything happening in their lives, characterizing this individual as a second mother.

Another pair of students also saw evidence of cura personalis in action in the work Wendy Day, who founded a non-profit organization that helps rap artists, for instance, advising them on contracts or defending their First Amendment rights with respect to their lyrics. They noted that she respected the dignity of every individual, and valued the diversity and difference amongst the people she worked with. And although she defends rappers First Amendment rights, she also has built trust with the artists and has blunt conversations with them about lyrics that she finds inappropriate. They saw discernment manifested in multiple individuals. For example, FBI agent Allison Mourad deals with cases of child pornography, including often posing as a young child in chat rooms. The students noted that Mourad was able to manage emotions and react appropriately to the emotions of others. Particularly when posing as a child, she exceled at "keeping herself calm and responding appropriately in order to get her work done. Similarly, effective management of emotions was critical for Kim K, who is a surveillance officer in a casino. Various incidents of suicide had taken place at the casino; the students observed that dealing with incidents of suicide can be very difficult, but Kim K had the value of discernment and was able to manage her emotions as well as react appropriately to those incidents."

Lastly, one pair of students noted that simply by participating in the Gig interviews, the participants are portraying Ignatian spirituality as they reflect upon their work and aspirations. These students suggested that "managers could integrate reflections into career planning so that their employees could see where they are now, know where they want to go, and take steps to reach their aspirations."

Student Reactions to Assignment
In the informal survey completed post-assignment, students were asked three open-ended questions regarding what they had learned and the value of the assignment:

1. Comment about your learnings from the assignment regarding the meaning of work for individuals.
2. Comment about your learnings from the assignment regarding Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values (more broadly) and/or specifically how they relate to work.
3. Would you recommend this assignment (or something similar) be used in a future course? Why or why not?

Selected responses to these questions (italicized) are below.

Question #1: Learnings regarding the Meaning of Work

Students learned about the various motivations people have to work and seemed to gain an appreciation for others' work. They also gained life lessons they could apply to their own careers:

I learned that people's jobs aren't always what they seem. Often times, I think that people are what their job title indicates, but the people that work in these positions are just like me and others I know in my life; living with their jobs as only one aspect.

I learned of the many differences of work in our world and society and that, no matter how I view someone's job or position, that work means something to them and potentially something that is not visible from the outside looking in.

Even in professions where morality and ethics aren't readily apparent, this assignment helped to see why people found their jobs rewarding.

I appreciated learning about why people work (more than money), and why they work so hard.

I learned that no matter what field you enter, you should find what you love in that field.

People are motivated by all kinds of reasons to work. The meaning of work to each person is very different.

To get the most out of work, it has to match one's lifestyle and values.

I learned so much from this assignment, mainly that life truly is what you make it no matter the career you chose.

The meaning of work assignment opened my eyes to the many different ways in which people fit into society and contribute to it. Not all of them seemed to have a truly positive impact, but I was able to see why they chose to do what they did.

Question #2: Learnings regarding Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values

Many students found that the assignment helped them to better understand Jesuit values, what they might look like in the real world, and/or the effects of integrating them into one's life:

Through the assignment I learned about the specific terms listed (in the assignment instructions) but overall the readings gave me a context about why this University believes in educating the whole person.

The individuals who incorporated (Jesuit values) into their lives were more content with their job.

The values that I carry and how they influence other co-workers. I also, believe it or not, was able to learn more and more about Xavier's identity and what they stand for.

Through the extra handouts and readings, my knowledge of Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values was broadened immensely.

Of course, some were disappointed with what they found:

This assignment revealed a lack of Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the lives of common Americans. If they are present, it is a weak example of them. It's hard to live them out in real life, and that is a sad fact.

Others found the emphasis on Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the assignment to be overly challenging or lacking relevance:

I had a tough time with them because most of my classes don't work with them and, as a non-Catholic, they aren't significant to me.

I am not religious. I consider myself an atheist. I feel that us having to incorporate this into an academic paper takes away from the academic quality.

I found the connection between Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values to be difficult to connect to each individual story, as we do not really learn much about these concepts.

Question #3: Recommendation regarding Assignment

Many students found the assignment to be of value and would recommend it going forward:

I personally would not change a thing to this assignment--the knowledge I gained as a result of the research I did helped me fully understand that the Jesuit ideals are like a code to live by, if you use and exhibit these behaviors, then satisfaction will result.

Yes! Although at first I was thinking it'd be a useless burden of work, I was excited to find out how much I enjoyed reading the interviews and making observations; it helped me get more out of them than just surface entertainment. It was also nice to get to use ideas of Ignatian spirituality in a class other than Theology since our education is saturated with these ideas. We don't get enough interaction with this spirituality (especially in business classes)!

I would use it in the future. It was rewarding to be reminded of the Jesuit values through this assignment.

Yes, it was interesting, informative, and relevant.

Yes, because it helps me to understand how to find God in any line of work.

Yes, I would definitely recommend this assignment. It was really interesting and practical to us as college students figuring out what our career will be.

Yes, this assignment allowed me to reflect on my lifestyle and what career would be best for me. I also got to learn about other people's experience in the workplace.

Yes, I learned a lot about life in the job world and learned about the Jesuit values.

Others seemed to like the assignment, but had more specific feedback to consider in revising it for future use:

I would provide some material that shows an example of actual Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values being lived out fully. That way we can see their benefits and have something to compare to when reading through Gig.

I think people need to be more educated on Jesuit values in order to complete this assignment to get its full effect.

My only criticism is that I couldn't find the connection to management or leadership.

Others had differing reactions, particularly to the Jesuit values portion, requesting that it be made more inclusive or eliminated altogether, whether based on their personal beliefs or other reasons:

The assignment overall was valuable. Integrating Jesuit values isn't totally necessary, but it seems like a good experience to have at a Jesuit University.

I would, though I don't think the Jesuit part is too critical.

I would, but the Jesuit values are something that can be omitted to be replaced with something else. Although it was nice to connect the ideas, I don't think people got a lot out of it.

Yes! I liked reading and writing the Gig part (not so hot on the Jesuit values part). Maybe something to incorporate other faith traditions?

The book was very enjoyable and I have a learned a lot based off of these interviews. I do understand how being a private Jesuit school would want to elevate its values and create an assignment rooted in this, but I still felt bombarded with religion, especially when I have no rapport with Xavier's definition of "God."

Conclusion
In general, I was pleased with the assignment. Students' analyses of what work means to people, how Jesuit values are manifested in people's work, and where there are opportunities to integrate such values were thoughtful and insightful. I delighted in reading their papers. Students' reactions to the assignment indicated that they generally enjoyed the assignment and felt it was worthwhile in terms of their learning. In perhaps the ultimate indication of enjoyment, several students mentioned that they would not be selling the Gig book back at the end of the semester!

However, I am also left with thoughts to ponder in terms of offering this or a similar assignment in the future. Pre-assignment, students seemed to have very different levels of exposure to and knowledge of the Jesuit values. Although I provided the students resources, perhaps additional in-class time devoted to education in this area would be advised. In addition, in the post-assignment survey, several students seemed disinterested in Jesuit values altogether, whether based on their personal beliefs or other reasons not stated. Although the Jesuit values are based in the Catholic faith tradition, I had not perceived them as exclusive based on my perception that serving others or taking time to reflect, for example, are values found in a multitude of faith traditions and even among those with no faith tradition. However, several students seemed to feel excluded by this aspect of the assignment, and I will need to contemplate if there is anything I can do to increase the inclusivity of the assignment in the future.

I do plan to continue to integrate Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in my courses going forward. As one student mentioned in his or her reaction, they "don't get enough interaction with this spirituality (especially in business classes!)." I think it is important that students realize that the Jesuit values are not ideas limited to Theology classes, but rather, living, breathing, ideals that are relevant to their lives and their future careers in business.

Reference
1
The assignment is adapted from Cox, P. L. (2004). The meaning of work: Studs Terkel's Working as a teaching tool. Journal of Management Education, 28, 757-769.

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Development of a Community Engaged Immersive Learning Project for a Human Resource Management (HRM) Course, Applying Cura Personalis and Reflection to Develop Business Leaders Able to Address Social Justice Issues with HRM

Greg Falcon Hardt, PhD ABD

Mentor: Cam Cockrell

Overview

This alternative project is designed to integrate HR processes and issues related to “finding dignified, stable work that offers sufficient pay and benefits” in order to provide a quality of life for the worker and their families. These goals are challenging in ways not typically considered, but they are made real from generational poverty and inconsistent work histories. Students are introduced to a corporate partner that gives a brief overview of the HR department and the typical applicant experience. Students will discuss how things should work for applicants and businesses as they move through the hiring process. Next students walk to a non-profit support partner that provides services for individuals who are in need of services to help them find, apply for, interview for, and maintain a job for at least a year.

One year at work is a goal for our agency partner and also a statistically significant milestone for individuals in their quest for gainful employment. Students will learn about the career coaching that is designed to help individuals understand what to expect through the hiring process and deal with challenges as they seek to remain employed at the same place for long term. Other processes discussed, along with challenges faced by the individuals receiving services include crafting a resume, applying for a job, how to network and budgeting to help keep a job. The goal that everyone has is reaching a mindset of thinking about a career path and how to traverse it from entry-level jobs on to promotions and upward mobility into management or other higher-level positions.

Project

Students will make their own way, typically by public bus, to a base of operations in downtown Cincinnati. This is the beginning of their immersive experience to see first-hand some challenges faced by individuals who do not have a car or reliable transportation. Students will walk to several locations in downtown Cincinnati to visit several businesses and service providers focused on learning about HR issues from several perspectives. Students will have the opportunity to interact with these organizations as well as individuals who current or in the past have dealt with the issues being discussed. Students will spend the night as a group downtown. The group will be led through reflective discernment as they process the events of the day.

The following morning, students will meet with other partners in the business community and take a guided tour of a downtown Cincinnati neighborhood with a focus on some of the concerns and issues residents face every day. The day ends as the students walk back to our base of operations for more guided reflection. Students will produce a series of reflection reports as part of their class graded requirement. These reflection and the immersive learning experience replace a project that students would typically complete during class time and outside of class from the Xavier campus

Immersive Learning outing

Friday

Noon

  • Travel to base of operation, as start of introduction to everyday challenges faced by individuals, students must make their own way to the downtown designed meeting place
  • Quick brief on activities and introductions

Afternoon

  • students walk to several business and service providers for meetings
  • Meet with “traditional” organization, HR seminar
  • Meet with “non-traditional” organization, HR seminar
  • Meetings with “non-profit service” provider, discuss HR related challenges and HR related social injustice issues

Evening

  • students walk back to overnight accommodations
  • guided reflection and report on day’s activities and what was learnt

Saturday

Morning

  • several mini-seminars with guided reflection highlighting HR/social injustice
  • guidance on producing a report on the immersive outing

Midday

  • students participate in guided “tour” of neighborhood
  • discussion on challenges faced by residents
  • watch relevant “movie” followed by discussion, making connections to previous outing experiences

Evening

  • closing reflection and discussion
  • each individual makes their own way back to Xavier

Cura Personalis component of Immersive outing

The Jesuit value of Cura Personalis is based on the premise of caring for the whole individual (Mooney, 2002). To the faculty, this requires attention to the needs of students beyond basic requirements of the classroom. Students are guided to take care and attend to personal challenges including mind, body, and spiritual well-being while most importantly, also focusing these same consideration onto others.

Ideally in the business fields, cura personalis is provided to the student by faculty and the student provides cura personalis to others through their field specific touchpoints. The HR student learns how to be attentive to the mind, body, and spiritual needs of others through the HR processes they implement. Teaching the student to bring to bear cura personalis in their everyday career efforts helps bridge the divide between spiritual and professional, economic and personal, acting as mere laymen and finding God in all things.

The immersive learning experience is designed to give students an exposure to social injustices and a lens for dealing with this new knowledge. Reflection is a key part of the growth aspect of immersive outings. Reflection, also a key Jesuit value, provides a framework for discovering the meaning in our experiences and a consideration of the value of our knowledge and decisions. It allows us to test our reality and where we fit within it (Yandell, 2005; Traub and Mooney, 2010). The student is guided through several activities designed to see deeper than the textbook presentation of concepts and experience the challenges individuals face in the context of specific HR processes.

The profession of Human Resource management provides many opportunities to care for the whole individual, but the profession tends to focus narrowly on guiding the person through legally required pathways in the name of strategic implementation. However, our students have a unique opportunity to not only study ethical and moral dilemmas that help us to see opportunities to apply cura personalis, they will be provided the opportunity to see and experience the needs that produce such dilemmas. What is typically perceived as a dilemma tends to focus on opposed goals between the employee and employer. HR has the charge of dealing with these situations which provides an opportunity for cura personalis based yet business friendly solutions. 

The key to the value of the immersive experience is helping to develop the students’ lens. If the student sees the social injustice, they can choose to do something about it. If the student is shown the intersection between their workplace needs and their cura personalis driven attention to the whole individual they can develop innovative solutions that benefit all parties. If the student can help others in the course of their work, they themselves are helped and healed in ways that address mind, body and spirit. The immersive learning experience aims to address specifics. How can we improve our interview (selection process) knowing that some individuals do not own a suit or professional attire? What can we focus on and what should we overlook when considering experience based questions in order to avoid unintentionally disqualifying worthy individuals based on their socio-economic position? Can HR address needs of a parent such as safe and reliable daycare located conveniently in relation to the workplace so that a single parent that is qualified can be selected based on their qualifications?

Conclusion

The field of HR revolves around the individual (employee) and it is faced with many opportunities to practice cura personalis. There are a few reasons why we miss many of those opportunities. First, the effort involved is considered to be inefficient by many. Reflection would help us understand what we can do to be more caring of the needs of others and how we can do this without a loss of efficiency. But, if we are not aware of the need it is much harder to be part of the solution. An experience such as the planned immersive learning outing helps us to see the needs.

Second, HR is taught with a focus on legal defensibility and economic efficiency aimed at producing competitive advantages. The ethical and moral opportunity to do more, to provide cura personalis, is typically not a focus of the profession, at the educational or practitioner level. Immersive learning and the incorporated reflection is a first step in developing the lens that allows us the Discern with the needs of the other and to work with the whole person as our focus instead of narrow, economic, cookie-cutter efforts aimed to appease.

Third, hearing from our brothers and sisters who live and understand the needs of those suffering social injustices is frowned upon as not the job of HR. It is perhaps easier to focus on laws and policies that diminish individuals to readily managed simplifications but cura personalis leads us to understand that we are each of us complex and needy in ways that our fellow human beings can help us.

This immersive experience with a focus on applying and developing cura personalis, will open the eyes of participants, elevate the needs of the employee as human beings that would greatly benefit from a caring helping hand. The exposure and guided reflection provided in the immersive experience will allow faculty to address the cognitive, emotional, and spiritual development of our HR students. We will give them insights, knowledge, experience, and tools they can apply in their careers as HR and business leaders with applied compassion, humility, love, justice, and responsibility for everyone they interact with; cura personalis as a Jesuit value for work at work without compromise. 

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Xavier University, the IMP, and my mentor for providing the Ignatian Mentoring program and supporting its goals. Cura personalis was a new term for me when I started at Xavier but it has been a core personal value and a way of life for a long time. Thinking of others and their needs and how business leaders can integrate this as a business strategy is a key interest of mine. I believe Human Resource management can and should be driven by individualized attention to the needs of the other and how to synthesize this focus with a sustainable business plan. I expect students to see that business and HR in particular can have cura personalis as a lasting influence providing a perspective to strategic human resource management decisions. This lens can provide a competitive advantage as others, including employees, realize the value it provides in improving the quality of life for employees, the strength of the community, and the sustainability of the business. 

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Integrate Ethics in Operations Management: A Field Study Approach

Alan Jin, Ph.D.
Mentor: Dave Hyland, Ph.D. (Finance)

Acknowledgements:

I would like to extend my appreciation for the opportunity provided by the Ignatian Mentoring Program for the great support, and express my thanks to my mentor Dr. Dave Hyland for his generous time and great guidance.

Introduction:
Ethics lies at the core of Jesuit education. In the operations/supply chain management area, it's important for our students to learn why and how to operate a business in an ethical way, when they design goods/services/facilities, select processes and layouts, source materials, produce products and services, manage quality, plan logistics systems, etc. In this area, we have seen numerous opportunities, challenges, success stories, and failures. The earlier our students can learn this, the more our society will benefit from them.

I made significant changes to my syllabus and course materials to integrate ethics in my operations management course using ethics-related cases, discussions, videos, and field studies. Building the connection between ethics issues and the operations course concepts helped strengthen students' knowledge in both ethics and operations management, according to the student feedback.

Course Information: (MGMT302 - Operations Management)
The purpose of this course is to provide undergraduate business students with a thorough introduction to the concepts and tools needed to understand the role of the operations function in the success of an organization, and to improve the quality, productivity, and competitiveness of their organizations' core processes. Much of the content also applies to other processes in business and society.

This course has lectures, experiential exercises, field studies, videos, case studies, discussions and real world application term project. This course also stresses the importance of ethics in operations. More details will be provided in class.

Ethics is an extremely important, integral part of operation for all businesses, especially in today's fast paced and globalized business world. Ethical operations bring competitiveness and challenges. For the operations topics that we cover this semester, we have ethics related discussion questions, real world field studies (with short reflection report) case studies, events organized by the Ethics Center of Xavier, etc. More details are provided in class.

A Two-Stage Field Study on "Ethics and Quality":
Rather than lecturing ethics theories in the classroom, I took a more experiential approach (e.g., cases, discussions, stories, videos, and field studies) to integrate ethics in operations management. Research has shown that these experiential learning techniques encourage in-depth understanding of the course material. The knowledge that we have acquired consists, in part, of the context or situation where they were acquired. Abstract course concepts divorced from relevant context have little meaning. Field studies help the students see the relevance of the course knowledge and motivate their interest and learning. This report gives an example of the ethics related field studies that the students did in my operations management course.

Guidelines for the field study are as follows:

1. You're going to observe the quality management practice in XXX (a local grocery retailer). This field study assignment is related to Quality management (Chapter 6), and is designed to facilitate your reading and make it more relevant and experiential. I will collect your answer and ask you to share your findings/thoughts with the class.


2. Answer the following questions:

a) How would you define the quality of a XXX? In other words, from a customer's standpoint, what are its key aspects/dimensions of quality for Kroger?

b) Read our slides, and textbook (9th edition, Page 210, the subsection titled "Cost of Quality"). Based on your experience/observation, what does XXX do in order to prevent quality problems from occurring? Can you give 10 specific examples?

c) Four major categories of costs are associated with quality (please refer to our slides, and textbook, 9th edition, Page 210, the subsection titled "Cost of Quality"). Read those paragraphs. Based on your experience/observation, can you give some examples of "Internal Failure" and "External Failure" in XXX?

d) Ethics plays an important can critical role in operations management, including quality management. How does the ethics of the employees and customers affect the quality in XXX? Based on your experience/observation, give some examples, to demonstrate how the ethics of the employees and customers could affect the quality of the products/service provided by XXX, positively or negatively. And provide some solutions for the unethical behavior of the employees and customers.

 

Stage One - Sharing Findings

The students did their field study, observing the quality management practice in that business and interviewing the employees/customers of the business. They identified a huge variety of ethical issues in the store and analyzed how they could affect the quality of service and products in that store. They also provided recommendations to resolve these issues. Below is a sample of their findings.

Customer-Related Ethical Issues

Customer stealing: customers hide the products on their person or not scan items in the self check out line.

If a customer has bad attitude towards the employees then they might not be motivated to do their job correctly.

A customer could break a product and not report it. This could give xxx a bad name because it might make people think they don't watch after their products closely enough.

Ethics plays a major role in quality management. I have seen at xxx before and watched a person grab a chocolate milk, drink it, and put it on top of the shelves out of sight. This unethical behavior not only increases costs for the rest of us who actually pay for our groceries, but they also affect the atmosphere due to certain clientele which in my opinion affects the quality of xxx.

There was a time in which I have seen customers in the store open up products and then put them back which causes the other customers no to buy it because it has already been open and contaminated. This act alone can cause xxx to throw away products that were perfectly fine.

I have seen customers just treat the store like it was a trash dump. They take the products and move them all over and if they do not want them while they are shopping they just throw them out of their cart. This makes shopping very hard for other customers and even harder for the employees.

An unethical customer may return items that are perfectly and claim quality issues to make money.

When xxx treats customers ethically, it helps business in many ways.

The unethical behavior of customers can also negatively affects the quality of xxx's products, as careless customers consistently leave refrigerator and freezer doors open, which can cause the spoilage of a significant amount of food.This can be prevented through increased monitoring of the refrigerators, and by installing a device in the refrigerators and freezers that detect any dramatic fluctuations in temperature.

Customers might not value ethics and proceed to shoplift, misuse coupon policies and/or harass employees, the company loses money for replacing the stolen items, money lost from an overuse of coupons and employee hiring and training for lost employees.

In terms of customers it would be much harder for xxx to influence how they act. But an unethical customer would be one who is sick with the flu and still goes to the store. This could get other customers and employees sick. Xxx could help fund program that educate customers and help explain how being sick could affect others.

Employee-Related Ethical Issues

Employees help thieves with their stealing by not paying attention in the self-checkout line or not scan items for a customer.

Employees may not care after putting defective items on the shelves or taking them off the shelves.

Employees may not want to put in the work to scan through the items and sort the defective and non-defective items.

Employees could either have an attitude for which they care or do not care. If they do care then the products will be placed neatly, and will be taken care of and make it appealing to the customers so they will end up buying it. If the employee doesn't care then the product might be broken or not properly taken care of.

The way the employees approach their jobs can determine if the customer has a good or a bad shopping experience and if they have a good or bad opinion of xxx.

If an employee doesn't listen to the customer closely enough or if they don't care then they could give them the wrong order and the customer gets very upset.

At the xxx location, they do not seem to enjoy their job and have a poor attitude, which creates a negative atmosphere.

When restocking a particular good that is relatively perishable, an employee might find they'd be able to do their job more quickly if they just replaced the good as fast as possible, not paying attention to expiration dates - leading to possibly wasted product and spoiled product being left on the shelves.

The employees who abuse their positions to steal from xxx or benefit their friends or ignore customers impact the quality of service and environment of xxx.

If the employees decide to make unethical decisions the business would suffer greatly. For example, if they started selling defected products or expired food to customers just because they did not want to waste it there would be many consequences.

The ethics of the employees severely affect the level of quality. For example, I was at xxx last week, and I could not find where tortillas were. I simply walked up to an employee and they informed me where it could be found. Due to the high morals that some employees have, it can increase the level of quality at that particular xxx store.

If an employee is unethical they might let items with less than desirable quality sit on the shelf in order to increase profits.

The better xxx treats its employees, the better they will want to perform ethically. When employees feel like they are treated fairly and paid a fair wage, it causes a more pleasant workplace, which can drive sales and increase efficiency.

The ethics of the employees and customers affect the quality in xxx in many ways. One of the ways this could negatively impact the quality of the products/services provided by xxx is if there is an employee who is rude to the customers and doesn't really want to talk to them. So the customer no longer wants to go through that person's checkout lane causing them to go to the self-check-out instead.

An ethical employee would remind their customers if there is any discount they can take on their purchase. It is an ethical thing to do to help the customers save some money, and the customer will return to the store because of it.

In one instance in an xxx store in Downtown Cincinnati, employees were caught relabeling packages and prolonging expiration dates to be able to continue selling meat without having waste. While they were maintaining their profits, the xxx was placing their customers in a danger that they were unaware of when purchasing products. This is unethical, and once uncovered, was damaging to profits.

The employees also need to be honest and careful in throwing out spoiled or rotten produce and deli produces in order to maintain quality and safe products.

An example of unethical behavior at xxx is when an employee scanned non-damaged beer and other goods as damaged and then took the goods home.

Based on my experience going to xxx, I have had very positive employees who are ethical. One example of this was when I was checking out and the casher told me to go back and get a second item since it was "by one get on free." Among others, this was one of the reasons why to this day I continue to shop at xxx.

Xxx depends on employees to work hard in order to project a positive image of the company. By failing to perform, and visibly behaving poorly, the organization suffers bother at the service level and at the organizational level.

I noticed an employee not taking some of the cans off the shelf that were expired and instead putting the new ones right in front. This is a huge ethical issue because a can that is outdated could get a customer sick.

Another unethical aspect of an xxx employee would be that she or he doesn't use gloves in the deli or meat sections.

For example, in the self-checkout line, I witnessed the employee clear people buying alcohol without checking their ID. They were just assuming based on appearance. These people also have the power to let people get by without paying for thing or sneak things out or stop people from doing this.

If the maintenance people at xxx are not doing their jobs, the floor could remain wet and customers could slop and fall, costing the company money in a lawsuit.

I have noticed at times, some of the employees that check out at the registers are lazy and slow, and I find myself having to bag my own food at times.

An example of an ethics violation would be if an employee were stealing money from the company, such as pocketing money from cash registers or allowing customers to misuse coupons.

It is important that the employees treat each customer equally. In doing this, each customer feels a sense of security when shopping at Kroger and is not made to feel discriminated against or mistreated, especially when it comes to suspicious activity such as a potential shoplifter, customers are not treated differently by any stereotype.

Consequence of Ethical Issues

More security personnel and cameras will be needed, which leads to higher cost for the store and all customers.

Customers may not want to shop at the store that they know many thieves will be around that could steal their wallet or groceries.

Having a lot of defective products on the shelves affects quality when customers are seeing and buying these defective products.

The ethical choices of the xxx employees can affect the overall experience of the customers. The way employees act can deter customers away, and have potential customers go to another grocer.

If I am a customer at xxx and I see an employee drop an open piece of ham on the ground and continue to put it in the display for sale it would certainly affect my decision to buy groceries from that xxx or any xxx in that case. It is absolutely important that employees act with ethical behavior.

Obviously, this problem would result in subpar quality for customers, as the project they might be looking for might have been thrown away, or it might be expired.

Another scenario might include deli workers moving at a slow pace, because they get paid whether they cut meats for customers or not. This would obviously result in longer waiting times for customers, reducing quality.

First off, customers would notice that xxx is giving them bad products and they would do their shopping elsewhere. Secondly, giving customers faulty products could cause serious problems for xxx including lawsuits, fines, and so son.

Recommendations

Hiring good employees and training them well.

Making sure employees are monitored to make sure they are doing their job.

A way that both the customers and employees can avoid poor ethical decisions is a strong, fair, but assertive management. They can train the employees on the way to communicate to other employees as well as customers, creating a stronger connected workplace.

At xxx, in order to attract more customers and keep them coming back, they need to create a positive and comforting atmosphere that makes people feel happy while shopping because usually the idea of grocery shopping is boring and a chore.

When restocking, I think a solution would be to have two separate people replace inventory in alternating shifts, so that if one employee might be engaging in unethical behavior, the other would catch it and fix the problem as soon as possible.

A potential solution might include adding monetary incentive for those employees who have quickest service times.

Some solutions to resolve this issue are to have more cameras watching customers, and potentially have another security guard who walks the store. Additionally, internal control to be put in place to prevent employee fraud would be beneficial to the whole xxx model as costs could be saved and ethical behavior would be improved.

If theft of higher quality and priced products occurs frequently, that product offering might be dropped to reduce the cost of carrying highly sought after items. One product is kept in a plastic case that needs to be opened at the register to prevent theft.

A solution to this would be having more than one employee check quality at different times so they can catch mistake or an unethical employee. Also have a stricter return process that would discourage unethical consumers to return products that are fine.

A solution for this could be a better screening process of the employees so that they aren't going to be people who treat the customers rudely.

Xxx could institute numerous internal controls designed to prevent the future theft of products. They can also require their employees to enroll in an ethics class prior to employment.


Stage Two - In-depth Discussion

At stage two, the students discussed the root causes of the identified ethical issues in that business. They shared their thoughts and knowledge. They concluded that ethics plays an extremely role in quality management, not just for that particular business, but also for all organizations. Quality management, an important topic in operations management, relies on ethical conduct of all stakeholders of the products/services.

Student Feedback

Student feedback was very positive. They made such comments as, "It's definitely experiential!" "I definitely remembered it now." "I'll remember it for a long time" "I enjoyed it a lot" "It triggered my interest." "I really saw how ethics affects quality." "I understand both quality and ethics better." "It made things relevant to me!" They suggested the continuous use of such field studies.

Conclusion

This field study was just one of efforts that were made to integrate ethics in the operations management course. When this report was writing, more detailed, in-depth data analysis was being conducted to find opportunities to improve this method.

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Following Xavier's Footsteps: International Management

Mina Lee, PhD
Mentor: Mee-Shew Cheung, PhD (Marketing)

Mina Lee, PhD

Articles from the popular business press distributed in class. In addition, students are expected to be familiar with current international business issues as reported in the Wall Street Journal and Business Week.


COURSE OBJECTIVES

The mission of the Williams College of Business (WCB) appears below:
We educate students of business, enabling them to improve organizations and society, consistent with the Jesuit tradition.

The primary objective of this course is to understand the world at the time when St. Francis Xavier traveled. Related to that, students are expected to learn the world today, as previous Jesuits did.

St. Francis Xavier was born in Spain, educated in France, traveled Mozambique (Africa), India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan, Indonesia, and died at China in 1552. In this course, we will discuss his itinerary to comprehend an extraordinary global traveler before the era of globalization.

Classroom activities will include presentation and discussion of theories, practices, case analyses, problem-solving activities, video discussions, and guest speaker visits.

GRADING

Your evaluation is based upon the quality of your class attendance, group presentations, project, exams and individual reports. The percentage weight given to each component is:

1. Exams: 50% (25% each, 2 exams)
2. Final Paper: 40%
3. Attendance/Participation: 10%
Total: 100%


1. Exam 1, 2. 50%

The exams will be essay questions.

2. Class Attendance and Participation: Individual. 10%

The course objectives and format are centered on your preparation for and participation in class. Please treat this class as a workshop for honing your skills in issues concerning International management. Your class participation should demonstrate: (1) evidence of careful preparation of cases and readings; (2) clarity and conciseness of your recommendations; and (3) strong and convincing analysis to support your recommendations.

Following each class session, the grade for class participation will be awarded as follows:

0 Partial or complete absence, arriving late on multiple occasions
1 Attended, but no involvement
2 Attended and contributed to discussion, reflecting a good understanding of material and evidence of preparation. Here, the quality of your participation matters, not the quantity.

3. Final Paper: 40%

The final paper is a student's reflection upon a country where St. Francis Xavier visited. It includes 1) country's cultural, economic, political, geographical, demographic, and technological analysis 2) summary of history 3) current business environment.

The report should be double-spaced, and the body approximately 20 pages, exclusive of exhibits and references. The border margins should be set at no less than one inch on all sides. The font should be 11 point.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Information for the project may be obtained from the Xavier Library, Public Library, the Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce World Trade Division, and the U.S. Department of Commerce Regional Office.

World Wide Web sources:
1. http://www.hoovers.com/features/industry/industries.html
2. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe
3. http://www.yahoo.com/Regional/countries/
4. http://www.usitc.gov/
5. http://www.wto.org/Welcome.html
6. http://www.businessweek.com/
7. http://www.ft.com/
8. http://www.pathfinder.com/fortune/
9. http://www.wsj.com/


ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT

All forms of cheating will result in an F for the course. In this class cheating includes plagiarism other students (previous or current)). Plagiarism also includes write-ups (partial or full) downloaded from the Internet. The academic policy of Xavier University will be enforced in this class.


DISABILITIES

If you have a documented disability or suspect that you might have a disability you, you need to notify to me at the beginning of the semester. To learn more about your rights, please visit http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/transition.html.
To learn about Xavier University's support and policy for disabled students, visit http://www.xavier.edu/academic-support/indexstudent-disability-services.cfm.


COMMUNICATION

Students are responsible for making sure that the e-mail account that they check regularly is listed on the Blackboard site for this course. Please check e-mail and/or the Blackboard site in the semester so you do not miss any additional readings, changes, or announcements.


GRADING SCALES

Calculation of final course grade from test / group presentations / class attendance points.

Grade Score
A 93.4 and above out of 100%
A- 90.0-93.3
B+ 86.7-89.9
B 83.4-86.6
B- 80.0-83.3
C+ 76.6-79.9
C 73.4-76.6
C- 70.0-73.3
D+ 66.7-69.9
D 63.4-66.6
D- 60.0-63.3
F below 60

Voyages of St. Francis Xavier map



Xavier Class schedule

Date Topics Due Date for Assignments
08/14 Sun Course introduction
How to use library resources
In-class assessment (will not be graded)
08/20 Sat Life of Francis Xavier
From birth to death
Globalization 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
08/27 Sat Spain, 1506
Spain was a leading country in the world in the 16th century. They had enough wealth from wide colony, as well as strong military power. Spain literally explored the world along with Portugal. We will go over the history of Spain briefly.

The current problem of EURO and PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain) will be discussed. Regional integration of EU is another important topic in understanding current Spain.

09/03 Sat France, 1525
By the time of 1525, the Renaissance was gradually spreading in France. Paris had Universities, where people can meet and share ideas. Ever since then, France is well known for the elite education system.

In this session, we will discuss the current economic leadership of France and Germany in Europe. We will also talk about the French elite education system and its implication to business world.

09/10 Sat Africa, 1541
In 16th century, The African was rapidly exploited by European countries. Currently, more than 40% of economy in Africa is conducted informally. Formal and Informal institutions are weak in Africa. Yet, Africa provides certain business opportunities in 21th century.
Exam 1: Doing business in Spain and France
09/17 Sat India, 1542-1545
India has a long history and relatively recent economic success. After 1991 liberalization, business in India has been flourishing. Indian business has its challenges, for its unemployment is high and infrastructures are outdated. In this session, we will discuss the characteristics of Indian business.
09/24 Sat China, 1552
Ming dynasty governed China in 16th century. The dominant religions in China at that time were Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. Matteo Ricci, the first Jesuit in China, arrived and reported about China.

Now, the China is a leading country in terms of economy. China under Hu Jintao (current president) has issue of income inequality, urban-rural conflicts, and social grievance towards rich elites. Still China is one of the most important trading partners of the United States. We will discuss how to do business in China.

Exam 2: Doing business in China and India
10/01 Sat Indonesia, 1545
The republic of Indonesia, which is full of natural resources, is the world's fourth most populous country. As a country of multiple islands, Indonesia has diverse languages (over 700) and dispersed land. We will discuss the Indonesian economy and its importance in Asia.
10/08 Sat Japan, 1549-1551
Nagasaki was the main Japanese portal to the world in 16th century. Through Nagasaki, new trends from the world transferred to the Japan.

Since 1991, Japanese economy is suffering from the asset price bubble. According to Michael Schuman, Japanese corporations became so-called "zombie firms", which are supported by banks. While Japan is in the middle of the liquidity trap (Paul Krugman), there are many global corporations in Japan. Toyota, Honda, Sony, Nintendo, the list goes on. We will discuss the role of Japan in global economy.

Wrap-up

Final paper due

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Encouraging Ignatian-based Xavier Values in Management Thinking

Reginald Tomas Lee, PhD

Mentor: Tim Miller, PhD (Accounting)

Situation

Xavier, being a Jesuit university that is fully vested in the teachings and philosophy of St Ignatius, has an opportunity and responsibility to help students understand, internalize, and act using Xavier’s Ignatian -based values of reflection, discernment, solidarity in kinship, service rooted in justice and love, Cura personalis, and Magis. The school begins this process by ensuring our undergraduate core course curricula supports and reflects these values. The expectation, then, should be continuity from the core curricula into non-core and courses in our students’ majors. This will provide opportunities to practice, think, and use Xavier’s Values, and see how the values are in unison with, and support learning, understanding, and action in areas related to the students’ primary interests. The expectation is that the values are ingrained in the students’ thought processes and become important tools in the toolbox of knowledge received from Xavier.

In the case of this particular application, the interest is in applying these values to business education; specifically MGMT 200 - Organizational Management.  MGMT is a brand new course that will be offered for the first time in Fall 2020. It is a combination of a number of courses taught previously. As such, this report is more forward looking (What will we do) rather than backward looking (What did we do?). This course has these basic high-level objectives for the students:

•   Demonstrate an understanding of the terminology, concepts, research, and theory related to Managerial Behavior
•   Develop and execute solutions to ethical and social decisions problems facing managers
•   Identify the variety of tasks and behaviors a manager must perform proficiently
•   Utilize various human resource functions to achieve organizational goals, while diagnosing and accounting for the effect of related human social dynamics
•   Integrate global issues in management decisions to strategically direct organizations
More specifically, the course has the following learning goals:

Critical Thinking

Learning Goal: WCB graduates will be able to think logically, reason quantitatively, and utilize appropriate

Ethics and Social Responsibility 

Learning Goal:  WCB graduates will be able to recognize ethical issues, discern moral implications of decision making, and be prepared, and willing, to serve as responsible and professional members of society.

Effective Written and Oral Communication

Learning Goal: WCB graduates will be able to organize, support and communicate ideas clearly and effectively, employ multiple mediums of communication (e.g., written, oral and visual), and adapt communication to audience, context or purpose.

Global Perspective and Cultural Diversity

Learning Goal: WCB graduates will appreciate the historical and cultural contexts of the world in which they live, demonstrate the competencies required for engaging in global business activities, and respect and value diverse peoples and perspectives.

Understanding and Application of Knowledge Across Business Disciplines

Learning Goal: WCB graduates will be able to evaluate business from an integrative and holistic point of view, leverage the synergies between functional business areas, and demonstrate college-level mastery of their chosen discipline.

Personal and Professional Development

Learning Goal: WCB graduates will be well-prepared for their future careers and appreciate the importance of continuous professional development and life-long learning.

As an introductory course in business, and given the overall course objectives and specific learning goals, MGMT 200 is an ideal course for students to begin understanding how to apply Xavier Values in business. The business manager faces a number of issues that Xavier Values will help address. There are right vs right situations where the manager must choose from two or more positive options. There are also "the lesser of two evils" situations where a decision must be made and neither outcome is desirable. Additionally, managers regularly face situations that are challenging. They must choose who to hire and fire. They may have to decide who gets the less than desirable work assignment or choose who, of multiple employees, may get a bonus or raise. They will help those who work under them deal with life's challenges; terminally ill family members they are caring for, children with special needs they are parenting, dealing with their own LGBTQ+ challenges, and others. The challenges managers face are ideal for applying Xavier Values to provide an aid to help them find a desirable and acceptable solution.

Challenge

Although the course is designed to introduce the student to managerial principles and has an emphasis on ethics as one of the learning goals, what is missing is the specific and explicit application of Xavier Values to the learning process. Whether considering the common text or the syllabus, Xavier values have not been specifically identified or recommended as a requirement for teaching and developing new managers. As a result, this leaves open an opportunity to apply these concepts to the structure of the course.

Solution

Two ways I will address this challenge is through the use of debates and the semester-long research projects.

Debates

Debates are used as an opportunity for teams to do research on a current managerial or overall business issue. Teams debate each other on a topic they are given to research and prepare.

Current Approach

The approach used in the debate follows:

  1. Students are divided up into teams at the beginning of the semester. These are the debate teams. They are also the teams used for in-class exercises and for their semester-long research project. This gives the teams a number of opportunities to work together, learn strengths and weaknesses, and work through the initial challenges of bringing people together into newly formed teams.
  2. The students are given topics to research and debate. Previous topics have included such issues as
    • Whether women are paid the same as men,
    • Which is better? Being efficient or effective?
    • Are affinity groups (e.g. gender, race, nationality) positive or negative for organizations.

The topics tended to be issues that were common to managers or tied to a specific subject that was either a current events topic or a hotly debated topic.

  1. Each topic had opposing sides. The students must prepare arguments for both sides. For instance, for whether women are paid equally to men, they have to research and develop an argument that demonstrates women are paid the same if not more than men, and they must develop an argument showing women are not paid the same as men. Their arguments are prepared as PowerPoint presentations and submitted to me the day of their debate. The team must be prepared to argue either side of the topic. The particular side the team debates is chosen in the class period in which they debate.
  2. The teams argue their respective sides of the debate. At the end of the debate, each team has the opportunity to challenge the other team questions to expose the weaknesses of their argument.
  3. Grades have historically been determined using the following rubric:
    • Slide visuals: 10 points
    • Research quality: 50 points
    • Quality of argument (fact based vs opinion): 25 points
    • Quality of rebuttals: 15 points
Updated approach

This approach can be upgraded to incorporate Xavier's Values. The following changes will be incorporated moving forward.

  1. Update the rubric to include the application of Xavier Values. The rubric that will be used will be:
    • Slide visuals: 10 points
    • Research quality: 30 points
    • Quality of argument (fact based vs opinion): 25 points
    • Application of Xavier Values: 25 points
    • Quality of rebuttals: 10 points

 

  1. Topics should focus specifically on areas where Xavier Values must be considered deeply on both sides of the argument. An example may be "Should a university accept students based on grades alone?" This would require an in-depth consideration of several of the Xavier Values on whether grades should be the sole criterion, or whether other criteria should be considered for admission as well.
  2. Team reflection and submission of which Xavier values were most salient in their arguments and why. This section would be added to each deliverable, pro and con, and will comprise the Application of Xavier Values section of the grade.
Research
Current approach

Each team is required to perform a semester-long research project on a topic of their choosing. The topics must relate to a management concept, technique, philosophy, guru, or a related notion. The students submit their topic for review, feedback, and approval. A key criterion for acceptance is the extent to which the topic is accretive to what is taught in class so that the material in class is expanded in a way where there is integrity between the topic and the course. The objective is to provide additional learning for the students by expanding the base material into newer or more intriguing areas of business. Once completed, the students have two deliverables; a written paper and a presentation, generally 15 minutes or less. The research and the findings are subsequently presented to their classmates. Classmates are tested on the materials presented as their final exam.

The current rubric for the research is:

  • Content - 30 points
  • Cases and examples - 25 points
  • Tying material to class - 25 points
  • Presentation and professionalism - 20 points (including meeting deadlines)

Content relates to the comprehensiveness and thoroughness of the prose in the presentation. Cases and examples focus on application of the research topics; who has implemented the concepts? What is a positive example? Negative? Tying the material to class is the piece that represents the integrity between the researched topic and the discussions in class. Students are to make clear ties and relationships with topics discussed throughout the semester. Presentation and professionalism reflects both the quality of the verbal and written presentation and how professionally the group behaved through the entire process. Did they meet deadlines? Did they have review meetings with me to discuss challenges and progress? How effective was their written communication?

Updated approach

The research component will be updated with a component reflecting the Xavier Values in a manner that is most appropriate given the topic and the resulting context. The idea will be for the students to use Xavier Values to discuss issues such as the challenges or benefits of implementing the concept, or the impact the topic can have on the employees, the organization, or the community. This will require the students to look deeply at the topic, understand it and the resulting implications, and describe these in detail in their papers and to their classmates. The rubric will be updated as follows:

  • Content - 20 points
  • Cases and examples - 20 points
  • Tying material to class - 20 points
  • Presentation and professionalism - 20 points
  • Reflection on Xavier Values - 20 points
Summary

These changes will allow the students to think about numerous managerial topics and issues, in ways that not only reinforce the course objectives and learning goals, but also give them a number of opportunities to thinking about managerial concepts and issues in a different way using Xavier Values. Through understanding new ideas and having to argue opposing sides of a managerial issue, and by doing both through the lens of the Xavier Values, each of the assignments should take on a deeper level of comprehension and meaning to the students. It is my desire that this exercise will prove valuable enough to the students that they continue to consider new concepts through the same lens.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank the following: Dr Tim Miller, Dr. Rashmi Assudani, and the Mission and Identity Center.

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Doing Business the 'Jesuit' Way

Marcia Lensges, PhDBy Marcia Lensges, PhD
Mentor: Dr. David Hyland

In his 1989 article in Boston College Magazine on the five traits of Jesuit education, Robert Mitchell, S.J. (1989) states that one of the key tenants of education is an emphasis on both personal and professional ethics. Father Mitchell goes on to explain how this unfolds: "Jesuit institutions today feel compelled by their tradition to raise these questions for their students, not through sloganeering and political maneuvering, but in a way that is proper for higher education: through learning, research, reflection and imagination." In my managerial behavior classes, I attempt to do just this, using stories and scenarios that prompt reflection and discussion among my students. But I have never asked students to reflect on their own journey in developing their morality and how engaging in learning at a Jesuit institution might inform their view of ethical issues, particularly in a business context. The purpose of this paper is to reveal my journey and findings when I asked my business students the question "What does it mean to do business the 'Jesuit' way?"

Research Method and Participants

The nature of my inquiry requires that I use a qualitative method to address my research question. I chose a grounded theory approach (Locke, 2002) to avoid preconceived notions and remain open to any themes that participants might offer in response to my research question (RQ). To collect data addressing my RQ, I created a survey of open-ended questions requiring students to reflect both generally on their experience of Jesuit education and specifically on how such an education can impact conducting business ethically. I chose to administer the survey at the beginning of my two managerial behavior classes on the day following a guest lecture on ethics by Dr. Joanne Ciulla, a renowned ethical leadership scholar. Dr. Ciulla presented ethical topics within the context of short cases, some from real-life experiences and some from fiction. In her presentation, she engaged students to imagine the feelings they would have experienced as managers or decision-makers in these cases. Students appeared engaged in the discussion and offered several thoughtful comments and ethical reasoning.

It is important to note that Dr. Ciulla did not specifically mention any Jesuit tradition or overtly refer to Jesuit values. Therefore, students were not primed to think in terms of applying Jesuit views to ethical issues. Having just discussed ethical issues in the previous class, however, did make the request to reflect on the connection between a Jesuit education and ethical decision-making a logical one for the students.

On the day the survey was administered, I began class by asking students to think about their learning experiences at Xavier University regarding ethical and moral behavior, either in the classroom or in other activities. I then asked students to anonymously answer the following questions:

  1. In a few sentences, describe what it means to do business the "Jesuit" way?
  2. What are words that come to mind when you think about a Jesuit education?
  3. How have you experienced Jesuit ethics at play during your Xavier experience? This could be a particular situation you encountered, a particularly meaningful class assignment, anything that has impacted you.
  4. Has your thinking regarding making ethical decisions at work changed as a result of your Jesuit education? If yes, how?
  5. How long have you been a student at Xavier?
  6. What is your major?

Students willing to complete the survey were asked to place it in a large envelope at the front of the room when completed. There were 47 students who returned completed surveys. Participants represented the following majors: Accounting, Business Analytics, Business Undecided, Digital Media, Finance, German, Health Services Administration, International Business, Management, Marketing, Natural Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Sports Management, and Theater Education. Participants included Freshmen (1), Sophomores (32), Juniors (9) and Seniors (3) and NA (2)

Analysis and Findings

To analyze the qualitative data captured in questions 1-4, I began by reviewing participant responses from five random surveys, looking for themes to emerge in response to each question. A few general themes emerged quickly for questions 1 and 4, but responses to questions 2 and 3 varied widely and I was unable to compress these to a set of consistent themes after reviewing five sets of data. As survey question 1 directly addressed my RQ, I applied a more robust qualitative analysis method referred to as open coding (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) in order to confirm my initial findings and look for additional emergent themes. Open coding requires creating a "dictionary" of already identified themes and then coding participant responses to either match these themes or add new themes to the dictionary (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). This process can add depth and nuance to existing theme definitions and as well as identify new themes.

The analysis process revealed several interesting findings addressed at doing business the Jesuit way, as well as participants' experiences of being members of a Jesuit institution. Below, I discuss these findings in order of survey questions presented to participants.

  1. In a few sentences, describe what it means to do business the "Jesuit" way?

After reviewing the initial five survey responses, three themes emerged: Doing work with quality, having personal integrity, and satisfying customers. After coding and reviewing all responses, these themes were expanded to the final three emergent themes:

  1. Performing quality work, often by thinking thoroughly and critically about tasks and decisions. One participant wrote " Business the 'Jesuit' way means to be intellectually competent and open to growth." Another said " Doing it the right way is making sure you think (through) every opportunity and scenarios are thought out."
  2. Acting with personal integrity, especially fairness. As an illustration, one participant wrote " To do business the 'Jesuit' way means to treat others in business with transparency, fairness, and justice. To be equal and honest in all transactions."
  3. Thinking of and benefiting others, not just oneself. This could include customers, communities, and the world in general. The following quotes illustrates this thinking: "...it is the understanding that the consequences of you doing business will impact somebody, whether it is positively or negatively." " Doing business the Jesuit way means treating everyone with the same love. Thinking of all the people your decision affects and making sure everyone is considered in the decision. 'All for one, one for all' still applies in the business world."

 

In multiple responses, participants saw themes a and c above as intertwined and working together.Participants recognized that making the best informed decisions and producing high quality work would in turn help others. The following quote illustrates this understanding:

 

"What it means to do business the "Jesuit" way is to care about the impact of your actions on other individuals and on nature.It means to deeply analyze a situation and find the best way to deal with it after reflecting and comparing the good outcomes for others. It means to be able to discern in our everyday life and be open to help and be available for others."

 

  1. What are words that come to mind when you think about a Jesuit education?

To analyze this data, I created a word cloud, which is a visual representation of how frequently each word appears in responses. Figure 1 shows the word cloud.

Figure 1 - Responses to "What are words that come to mind when you think about a Jesuit education?"

Word diagram of words related to morals

This data shows a few common themes, such as a well-rounded education fostering personal morals and values like honesty and charity. The data also demonstrates that students draw different meanings from such an education, supported by the variety of responses. One phrase that appeared several times in various forms, but I was not able to include in the word cloud for technical reasons, is "All for One, One for All." This aspect of Xavier's culture specifically has come to symbolize Jesuit education for many participants.

  1. How have you experienced Jesuit ethics at play during your Xavier experience? This could be a particular situation you encountered, a particularly meaningful class assignment, anything that has impacted you.

As with question 2, the responses collected from this question varied widely. To understand the full magnitude, Table 1 contains all unique responses.

Unique responses to "How have you experienced Jesuit ethics at play during your Xavier experience?"

  • Philosophy class
  • Info Systems class
  • Father B. in the dining hall
  • BLAW class
  • Morality Literature class
  • Volunteering (also blood donations)
  • Service
  • Xavier Motto
  • Family feeling on campus
  • Full process followed on policy issue violations
  • Biodiversity and the Greater Good class
  • Community engagement (also specifically Norwood)
  • Advisors
  • Theology class with Dr. Mescher
  • Alternative Breaks
  • Manresa
  • Professors helping students
  • 1 st year seminar
  • Learning about different cultures
  • Helping international students
  • Xavier Expeditions
  • Peace service last year
  • Working with non-profits
  • As an RA
  • Clubs doing fundraisers for charity
  • Everyone holds the door for others
  • Father Graham stated his position on ending DACA
  • Doing good things in secret

As the data indicates, participants reported a wide range of experiences throughout their tenures at Xavier that pointed to the Jesuit influence.

  1. Has your thinking regarding making ethical decisions at work changed as a result of your Jesuit education? If yes, how?

Due to a lack of meaningful comments in response to this question, I analyzed the data with a simple count. Of the 47 participants, 36% (17 students) clearly reported thinking differently about ethical decisions in light of their Jesuit education. A few of these participants mentioned that their Jesuit education began before attending Xavier.

Discussion

I began my research by asking the question "What does it mean to do business the 'Jesuit' way?" Through analyzing responses to four student survey questions, I found some common themes among respondents. The first is that students have internalized the Jesuit concept of being men and women for others. This theme jumps from the question 1 data where students consistently reported considering business impacts on other entities, such as customers, community, and society at large as imperative to doing business within a Jesuit orientation. Again, the theme appears in several words to describe Jesuit education (question 2), such as service and compassion. Lastly, participants reported multiple behaviors they witnessed around campus that pointed to serving others (question 3), such as the simple act of holding the door for others. Participants are making the connection between these behaviors and the Jesuit education they are receiving.

Another common theme related to the first and appearing in the data consistently was the idea of community as crucial to Jesuit business and values. In response to question 1, one participant stated that doing business the Jesuit way " is about reaching success as a team rather than individually." This is echoed in words like diversity and inclusive that appear in the word cloud, and also in behaviors like community engagement in Norwood. Again, participants connect these community-building aspects of Xavier life to its Jesuit values.

Although not a major theme present in the data, analysis did reveal that not all students acknowledge being positively impacted by a Jesuit education. For example, in response to question 1 regarding doing business the Jesuit way, one participant responded " I have no idea - not even sure what a Jesuit is." Another wrote " Doesn't make me think of business any differently, honestly. I've always thought business is business and doing business the 'Jesuit' way does not change my way of thinking." These minor, but not insignificant, findings suggest that there is room for additional application of Jesuit values to our business learning.

I am deeply encouraged by what I found in studying my research question. My data suggest that students are significantly internalizing the Jesuit values that they are learning and experiencing at Xavier. They report that not only are they hearing the message of the Jesuit way in classes and on walls, but they are seeing it played out in a myriad of ways on and off campus by Xavier students and staff. This "lived" experience of Jesuit values, I believe, will follow them as they move beyond Xavier's campus to shape our world.

Special thanks to Dr. David Hyland, my mentor throughout this process, who provided valuable insights into both this research and my Xavier journey.

References

Glaser, B., and Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. London, England: Weidenfeld.

Locke, K. (2002). The grounded theory approach to qualitative research. In F. Drasgow and N. Schmitt (Eds.), Measuring and analyzing behavior in organizations (pp. 17-43). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mitchell, Robert, S.J. (1989). What it's all about: The five traits of Jesuit education. Boston College Magazine. 48 (4), 19.

Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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Consumer Communities Do Well, But Can They Do Good? An Ignatian Mentoring Project Problem Introduction

Dr. James Loveland
Mentor: Dr. Mina Lee

Over the last decade, the relationship between consumers and brands has become a focal point of both academic research and corporate activity. Consumers are more demanding of their brands, and actively consider not only factors such as product quality, but also the nature of the firms that make their products, and the types of consumer-brand relationships that might be engendered by choosing one brand over another. For example, many consumers want to know that their brands are engaging in prosocial behaviors and supporting causes important to them (cf. Bhattacharya and Sen 2004); many consumers also participate in brand and consumer communities, so that they can build relationships with their fellow consumers (e.g. Muniz and Guinn 2001) . These communities also represent a significant strategic asset for firms, and so many firms have accepted the reality that building relationships with consumers, and focusing on these relationships from a customer-centric perspective (Fournier 1998) provides an important means of building customer loyalty, for addressing consumer concerns, and for communicating the different prosocial activities that the firm is engaged in. Ultimately, these communities have the potential to create firms which must be accountable to their constituents, and to create organizations that can take pride in enacting social change. Research oriented around these consumer-brand relationships within the context of prosocial activities has tended to focus on the impact of the firm's activities on relational outcomes important to the firm, such as customer loyalty and other purchase-related behaviors. However, the profit-centric approach ignores the potential value that consumers place with brands engaged in prosocial behavior. Hotel guests, for example, will reuse their towels while staying at hotels to make the planet greener. While this is in part due to a desire to protect natural resources, consumers consider this within the scope of relational and social norms for this relationship. In fact, many consumers expect this type of behavior from firms. Despite its potential importance, research has not seriously examined the capacity of firms to mobilize consumers to do good or to participate in prosocial causes that do not involve purchase behavior. For example, Harley-Davidson's "Ride For a Cure" entails donating money to the Muscular Dystrophy Association, asking friends to sponsor their ride, and riding in groups along specific routes. These activities allow consumers the opportunity to build relationships with fellow consumers, engendering a sense of community (McAlexander, Schouten, and Koenig 2002) and a stronger sense of social identification with the brand and community (Hogg and Abrams 2003). In addition, prosocial activities which require consumers to actively donate their own time and effort directly tend to provide greater emotional benefits to consumers than do less direct prosocial activities (Krishna 2011). Activities of this nature should therefore simultaneously create benefits for the brand, the consumer, and for the social cause being endorsed. While these types of activities themselves are widely known, the actual level of participation, or who is doing the participation, is still unexamined.

Community and Ignatian and Jesuit Pedagogy

Consistent with Ignatian values, the desire to help others, to be men and women for and with each other, is perhaps one of the strongest unifying principles of the human experience. However, there are several tensions created when we organize; these tensions can create situations that may enhance the common good at the expense of those that are not considered to be part of the fold or a "key demographic" in marketing terms. For instance, a brand might seek out others who are similar and like-minded to the point that they actively exclude others. Consumers might also decide not to participate in a cause because it is already being pursued by their brand, and so companies must act in such a way that enhances the greater good. These two issues form the basis for this project. The question of inclusion in communities was included in the course Marketing 495 (Marketing Planning and Analysis / Capstone) as part of a Harvard Business Case on Harley Davidson, and the second question, of the role of firms in building a common good, was addressed through a work of scholarship which was published in Journal of Interactive Marketing.

Student Project and Discussion

Project Setup. During the Spring of 2018, 65 senior marketing students enrolled in MKTG 495 read the Harley Davidson business case, and discussion centered on the community-building activities of the firm and the values that the brand and community espouse. Typically, many of the values that are mentioned are freedom, liberty, and masculinity. As the students noted, the brand does well in terms of fostering these values within the larger community. After considerable discussion, the students were asked why the community was not representative of America-it was noted that there are many groups that are underrepresented in this group, and that there are people whose ideas of freedom and liberty are different, and people for whom traditional masculinity does not represent an ideal. Moreover, these values have left people feeling excluded-and while this might seem only like a brand issue, these types of spontaneous social/group activities are an important piece of the fabric of modern American life. So, developing inclusivity within a brand community represents an important social good that also makes sense from a business perspective. How to address this was the basis for an impromptu project in which students needed to identify ways in which to maintain the values of the brand, while making the offering more inclusive.

Student Discussion. Clearly, this was a sensitive topic to discuss, as it touches on aspects of race, gender, sexuality, age, and even political affiliation; these are all matters that are typically avoided in business. However, these are still decisions that they would be making as the business leaders of tomorrow, and students were reminded that they needed to face these issues head-on, because if they did not, then others would tacitly make these decisions for their organizations and not face these important issues. The students came up with several powerful ideas, foremost of which was that the American experience has been different for everyone, and many have been disenfranchised to the extent that even concepts like freedom and liberty seem jingoistic to many Americans. Firms should take a stronger sense in communicating, then, what freedom and liberty are-to both share what these concepts mean as a member of the community, but to develop a definition which is inclusive, and does not require individuals to have to hide or suppress who they are. Another key point the students discussed was the responsibility that firms have in ensuring that their communities behave responsibly-many of the associations people have of these communities is based on popular culture and visible, overt behavior of members. Firms should ensure then, that their consumers behave appropriately. From here, students also discussed the tremendous potential of these brand communities to play a larger role in the civic realm.

Academic Project.

Introduction to Problem. The academic portion of this project was based on a research study examining distributed computing projects. These projects are particularly interesting because they often address serious problems that are not addressable by other means-either because the projects require more computing power than one firm could devote to one unique problem, or because a problem is simply too large in scope, too lengthy in study duration, or otherwise not commercially viable. For example, UC Berkeley's SETI@home project has been coordinating the analysis of radio telescope data in the search for extra-terrestrial life since project release in 1999, and Oxford's climate prediction.net project has been analyzing and improving climate models since 2003. Many of the largest projects focus on daunting problems of fundamental importance to society as a whole. The largest distributed computing project, in terms of amassed computing performance, is the Folding@home project (Wikipedia 2014b). The project is devoted to disease research and seeks to develop treatments and cures for some of the most daunting diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cancer. The Folding@home project, currently overseen by Stanford University, includes over 400,000 active processing units and can perform data analysis at a rate of 8,588 TFLOPS. To achieve this processing, the project relies on a network of volunteers who allocate their processors to this task whenever they are not using their computers. Naturally, the prosocial nature of many of these distributed computing projects has attracted the interest of firms as well. Firms, particularly those in the computer hardware industry, have devoted considerable capital and programming expertise to promoting these projects as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. But unlike other CSR initiatives a firm might decide to engage in, distributed computing projects depend heavily on the ability of the organizers and corporate sponsors to recruit consumers who are both willing and able to commit the computing resources needed in order for these types of CSR initiatives to realize their potential. In the past, the CSR literature has primarily focused on CSR initiatives in which the firm simply donates funds directly to a cause based on consumer purchase behavior, such as donating a certain amount of money for each yogurt lid that is mailed to the company, or for each credit card transaction during a specified period. Furthermore, this research focused on the benefits of CSR initiatives to the firm, rather than how to benefit the initiatives itself and promote consumer participation . Despite the potential benefits to society, little empirical research has examined consumer contributions to CSR initiatives in the context of distributed computing projects.

Promoting consumer participation in distributed computing projects presents unique challenges. The consumers most able to benefit these projects are those who own very specialized computing hardware-specifically, high-end 3D graphics cards from AMD and NVIDIA Corporation which produce 40 times or more of the computing power of Intel main processors. For example, while an Intel I7-3700 series processor can produce up to 125 gigaFLOPS (125 billion floating-point operations per second), high-end enthusiast 3D graphics cards such as the AMD Radeon R9 295x2 produce over 11.5 teraFLOPS (11.5 trillion floating-point operations per second). Furthermore, many computer enthusiasts possess systems with up to three such 3D graphics cards installed. Since these graphics cards also have power requirements which make it impossible to install them in standard desktop systems, these cards are primarily used in custom systems specially built by computer enthusiasts. The challenge therefore facing distributed computing projects and their corporate supporters is identifying those computer enthusiasts who are not just able to help but are willing to actually participate.

From the firm's perspective, the natural targets for calls to participate are those enthusiasts who are the most dedicated and knowledgeable about the firm's products. Such highly brand loyal consumers frequently participate in online brand communities where they can share their knowledge about and appreciation of the firm's offerings (Muñiz and O'Guinn 2001, Thompson and Sinha 2008). In principle, these consumers possess the knowledge and ability needed to assist such projects. However, not all enthusiasts are dedicated to a particular brand. Some computing enthusiasts possess the necessary 3D graphics cards from AMD and NVIDIA, yet choose to avoid the associated brand communities in favor of non-brand based product category communities dedicated to those who enjoy high-end graphics cards in general. While both groups of enthusiasts are uniquely capable of "doing good" by participating in distributed computing projects, it is unclear which are more willing to do so. Thus, both project organizers and firm managers lack guidance on which consumers they should focus recruitment efforts on.

Summary of Results. Despite the tremendous faith that firms place in their purportedly loyal brand communities, our findings show that the strength or duration of the relationships that a brand has with its consumers do not necessarily provide a straight and direct path to increasing the likelihood to join a distributed computing project. Surprisingly, and completely contrary to the more optimistic predictions made in the marketing literature, membership in a brand community seems to actually be an impediment to joining a CSR distributed computing project, despite the high degree of identification that the most active members of these communities should have. By way of comparison, Algesheimer, Dholakia, and Herrmann (2005), in their study centered on ownership of European sports cars, found that continued membership, active participation, and relationship with the brand's products were all significantly related to positive outcomes for the firm and for the consumer's identification with the brand. However, in both the AMD and NVIDIA communities, active participation (100 posts) reduced the likelihood of joining the distributed computing project by margins of roughly 55% and 99% respectively. Membership duration had a similar, albeit smaller, effect of reducing likelihood of joining. Thus, while these active and longer-duration consumers are likely to be brand loyal and important to the brands they endorse, they do not represent the consumers that brands wishing to encourage participation in distributed computing projects should target.

In stark contrast to what was seen in the brand communities, we found that the likelihood of members of the general product category forum joining the Folding@home project actually increased by 476% when they actively participated in the product forum. Also, the impact of participation in a brand community is not wholly negative, as those participants who engaged in helping behaviors towards their fellow community members or toward outside (product category) members were more likely to join the distributed computing project. This underscores the multifarious nature of the consumer-brand relationship-this relationship extends beyond the product and brand to the larger community of product users. Many consumer-brand relationships have an inherently social dimension that is based on a connection with other users/admirers of the brand. Calling for prosocial action in the form of joining a distributed computing project appears to invoke these social relationships, rather than the relationship with the brand itself.

In sum, consumers who engage in helping behavior showed an increased likelihood to join a distributed computing project aimed at benefitting others. This positive impact of helping behavior was consistent across both of the brand communities as well as the product category community. This suggests that, despite the negative impact of brand community participation, the helping behavior that brand communities encourage can have a positive impact on joining projects aimed at benefitting others. Thus, brand communities can serve as a valuable source of donations to distributed computing projects-as long as the most help-prone members are targeted.

Overall Conclusions.

What initially prompted both of these projects was to understand the role of the firm within product and brand communities. These communities have the power to protect consumers, and to help organizations mobilize their members to pursue greater goods than firms typically contemplate. However, firms have little guidance on how to mobilize these communities, and firms often ignore the social values that their communities may engender or foster.

Selected References.

Fournier, Susan (2001), "Building Brand Community on the Harley Davidson Posse Ride" Harvard Business Case 5-501-052.

Thompson, Scott A., Molan Kim, James M. Loveland, Russell Lacey, and Iana A. Castro (2017) "Consumer Communities Do Well, But Do They Do Good? A Study of Participation in Distributed Computing Projects" Journal of Interactive Marketing, 37 (2), 32-43.

 

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Development of an Alternative Spring Break Experience Focusing on Social Entrepreneurship and Discernment

Rebecca Luce , Ph.D.
Mentor: Stephanie Brzuzy (Social Work)

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank both Stephanie Brzuzy and Debra Mooney for their enthusiasm and support in working on the ideas for this program, especially as it relates to information and suggestions regarding incorporation of the Jesuit tradition of discernment. Discernment was an unknown process to me when I began work on this project and it has become a topic of substantial interest since I have been introduced to it by both Stephanie and Debra. I expect it to have a lasting influence on the way I make decisions and evaluate the course of my life.

Overview of Alternative Spring Break Experience

Student doing volunteer work in Alternative Spring Break ExperienceThis alternative spring break experience is designed to have equal numbers of students from Social Work and Management/Entrepreneurship working together in pairs on a social entrepreneurship project over the course of the week of spring break. The joining of students from both departments represents the two aspects of the field of social entrepreneurship, which is typically defined as the application of entrepreneurial principles to the achievement of social objectives. By having students of each discipline working together to help achieve social goals, each will have the opportunity to learn from the other, while producing a beneficial outcome in the social sector. The students will be housed at a retreat location for the week, away from their typical daily environments in the Cincinnati area or on campus, so they are fully immersed in the program for its duration.

Potential Projects

Students may be assigned to work on a social entrepreneurship project associated with alleviating a social problem in an underprivileged context such as a neighborhood or community which is in need of some support to achieve a desired end. They may also be assigned to work with local entrepreneurs in need of social and entrepreneurial expertise to assist in getting their businesses off the ground. Another alternative would be to provide support and assistance for a nonprofit organization in seeking funds and/or in assessing its performance. Projects for at least the first year of the program will be in the Cincinnati area. Nominations for the project will be sought from local organizations and campus sources.

Potential Structure of the Alternative Spring Break

Initial Weekend

Saturday and Sunday preceding the social entrepreneurship project will be spent in workshops and events to increase teambuilding and self awareness among the participants. Potential activities include a Strengths Assessment Workshop conducted by Tim Kloppenborg of the Management and Entrepreneurship Department. This workshop would help students develop personal consciousness of their strengths as individuals and present an opportunity for them to share this information with others. This would be particularly helpful as an initial exercise in preparation for the discernment component of the program. Other potential workshops for the initial weekend period include (1) an introduction to the social entrepreneurship project for the upcoming week, (2) material and activities related to social entrepreneurship and (3) speakers and activities regarding the process of discernment. Evening hours would be spent in activities encouraging participants to become familiar with each other's backgrounds and interests, as well as discussions of anticipated outcomes of the program.

Weekdays

The tentative structure of the weekday time for the students' alternative spring break is as follows:

Morning: Classroom time on social entrepreneurship, discernment, project site

Afternoon: Work at project site

Dinner: Debrief and discussion of day's activities; guest speakers

Evening: Time for discernment journaling and group discussion

Discernment Component of Program

Because of the nature of the program, focusing on accomplishing social objectives through the use of entrepreneurial techniques, the Jesuit process of discernment is a complementary activity that will help students reflect on what they are learning and how it may be changing their views of what is important to them in their lives. Discernment can take on a variety of forms, but according to the writings of Elizabeth Liebert in The Way of Discernment (2001), discernment literally means discrimination; in this case, faithful discrimination related to decision making. Discernment is a process of assessing how one's desires and decisions fit into God's life plan for us as individuals. "Because our identity is formed in part through our decisions, the making of decisions is actually a privileged moment for growing in discipleship"(Liebert, 2001: 7). The process of discernment provides a semi-structured means to examine one's life experiences and decisions in a way that attends to the wishes of God for us. To be effective, discernment relies on noticing and awareness of one's surroundings, which is an avenue for students to incorporate their social entrepreneurship experiences into their personal discernment journeys.

A journal will be designed for use during the program which will guide students through a series of thought provoking discernment questions that they can use to reflect on the day's experiences as well as the decisions they face in their lives. In addition to personal journaling, group discernment activities that involve sharing individual observations (in a way that is comfortable for each person) will help bring participants closer to each other and provide an opportunity to learn more about the discernment process.

Conclusion

The social entrepreneurship alternative spring break program is designed to provide a unique dual opportunity for students: to work on a meaningful project that incorporates partnering with a student from a sister discipline at Xavier as well as to gain personal awareness of their life direction through the Jesuit tradition of discernment.

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Ethics and Negotiation

Zachary A. Russell, Ph.D.

Zachary A. Russell, Ph.D.
Mentor: Russell Lacey, Ph.D.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Russell Lacey for his guidance and support throughout the program. I would also like to thank the Ignatian Mentoring Program for providing this opportunity to increase my own knowledge of Jesuit values and, in turn, better incorporate these values into my curriculum.

Introduction

"Negotiation is an interpersonal decision-making process necessary whenever we cannot achieve our objectives single-handedly. Negotiations include one-on-one business meetings, but also multiparty, multicompany, and multinational relationships. Whether simple or complex, negotiations boil down to people, communication, and influence" (Thompson, 2012, p. 2). Negotiation is omnipresent in the daily lives of all individuals. Representing one's organization and negotiating relations with another organization, attempting to garner internal firm resources for increased task performance, negotiating compensation packages throughout one's career, settling disagreements with college roommates, and determining who will complete household chores with one's significant other all represent instances in which negotiation and conflict management skills are vital to one's success in achieving what he or she desires.

For the majority of individuals, the nature of negotiation often results in a fixed-pie perception, which is the belief that the other party has needs and wants that are in direct opposition to one's own needs and wants (Fisher and Ury, 1981). When individuals are competitive in nature, in an attempt to persuade, deceive, or trick the other party, they may resort to questionable tactics when negotiating, including nondisclosure, deception, and lies (Reitz, Wall, and Love, 1998). However, even when not typically competitive in nature, many people lie in what one could view as an act of self-defense. Indeed, Gino and Pierce (2009) found that the primary reason for lying in negotiation was an emotional response to the perception that the other party might be lying, and that one must lie to restore fairness.

As a result, the use of questionable tactics is pervasive, both in business-related negotiation and conflict management, as well as in our personal lives. In an effort to address the inescapable nature of ethical dilemmas present in negotiation with others, I sought to incorporate content into course lessons that align with many Jesuit values. As described further below, course content addressed Xavier's values of reflection, cura personalis, and magis.

Course Information (MGMT 312: Negotiation and Conflict Management)

Negotiation and Conflict Management is a newly developed course for the spring 2018 semester. The overarching goal of this course is to offer a practical framework for understanding individual and group conflicts as they operate in organizations, and to develop skills for managing and navigating these conflicts. This course creates an opportunity for self-analysis, participation, and skill development around competencies that are highly prized in the modern workplace. Other key objectives include:

  • Students are able to demonstrate an understanding of the information that is needed to analyze a conflict and its context, are able to collect relevant information, and assess the conflict and potential remedies (e.g., negotiation) with that information.
  • Students are able to apply strategic and tactical tools and theories that enable them to plan appropriately for a business negotiation.
  • Students are able to identify the challenges in executing plans to remedy a conflict (e.g., negotiation).
  • Students are able to recognize ethical considerations related to conflict remedy options and make a recommendation.
  • Students are able to demonstrate an understanding of the human social dynamics that result in conflict.
  • Students are able to demonstrate the applicability of this knowledge by using it to better anticipate, comprehend, and influence the thinking and behavior of others as conditioned by organizational structure and policy.
  • Students are able to demonstrate a more reflective posture about one's own aptitudes, aspirations, and interactions.

Course Content Related to Jesuit Values

In an effort to both better inform myself, as well as better incorporate Jesuit values into the negotiation and conflict management course, I referred to the Xavier University Center for Mission and Identity website. After consuming several resources available on the website, I found that three of Xavier's values, as listed on the website, could directly be incorporated into the course.

Reflection. Students participate in a role-playing negotiation activity every class period. Each of these negotiations attempts to address different aspects of negotiation and the greater forces that can affect each contextual situation. The negotiations address contexts ranging from as minor as purchasing a sugar bowl or settling conflict with a roommate, to as major as multi-party real estate acquisition and long-term union versus management compensations settlements.

After every negotiation activity the results of every group are posted, experiences are discussed, and learning points are explained. Students then are required to reflect upon their own actions within the negotiation activity, what went well and what can be improved upon, and how considering the bigger picture of the simulated context might inform what they hope to change and address moving forward into the next negotiation activity. These reflections are accumulated into part of each student's individual portfolio, which builds throughout the semester and provides each student with a source to reference in the future.

Cura personalis. Throughout the course there are several instances where I focus on the importance of recognizing the other party in the negotiation as a person with unique beliefs, emotions, needs, and wants. This is critical in negotiation, as often individuals view the context as "me against them," and neglect to consider the importance of the person. At the beginning of the semester students complete the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI). This analysis provides students with insight regarding how they handle conflict, and provides them scores in five categories (i.e., competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, accommodating). A focus is to help those who score very highly on competitive become aware that they might want to spend extra times asking questions of the other party and attempting to build a relationship. This helps them to recognize the uniqueness and importance of that person.

Also, throughout the semester an emphasis is made to highlight the results of each negotiation activity. Despite pairs of students receiving identical roles, the results always vary greatly. Displaying this to students and discussing how each person is unique, with unique experiences, differing subjective valuations of identical issues, and differing comfort levels regarding the use of negotiation tactics demonstrates the variance that exists within people. The emphasis is to focus and prepare for the person you are meeting, as establishing a relationship with that person, and recognizing the ability to create your negotiation protocol as a pair (or more) is important.

Magis. The universal good is a very important aspect of negotiation. Hoftede's (1984) cultural dimensions analysis reveals that the United States is the most individualistic country in the world and, relatedly, that business dealings in the United States culture rarely focus on the societal good or care for others. An emphasis was made throughout the class to look at the bigger picture when planning for a participating in a negotiation.

One particular point of emphasis aligns with what celebrated negotiations expert William Ury describes as the Third Side (2000). Ury describes the Third Side as "a way of looking at the conflicts around us not just from one side or the other but from the larger perspective of the surrounding community. You can have natural sympathies for one side or the other and still choose to take the Third Side" (2018). In class I showed a TEDTalk with Ury as he described the importance of acknowledging the Third Side and frequently commented on the importance of this mindset when negotiating. Doing so allows negotiators to recognize that they can work together, develop trust and strong relationships, and consider not just one's own needs and the needs of the other party - which often results in conflict - but also in the strength of the Third Side.

Ethics-Based Negotiation Activity

The lecture during the eleventh week of the course focused on maintaining ethical behavior while effectively utilizing logic-based and emotion-based power. Emphasis was placed on considering potential variance in contextual and cultural norms. For example, although considered the norm in the United States, attempting to "win" or gain a large amount of resources in a negotiation with a firm from a long-term oriented national culture (e.g., Japan) could be perceived as unethical. This part of the lecture discussed the importance of considering the bigger cultural realities when strategizing for a negotiation. Further, a great deal of time was dedicated to why lying - both passive and active misrepresentation - is unethical in negotiation and can lead to damages to both the other party and oneself.

The activity section of the eleventh week of the course was The Bullard Houses negotiation (Tan et al., 1995). The negotiation is focused upon the purchase of a piece of property, with one party acting as an agent for the buyer (a hotel development firm) and the other party acting as an agent for the seller (a group of wealthy family members who jointly own their ancestral home). The buyer representative is explicitly directed that he or she cannot reveal who they represent or the plans for the property after purchase (i.e., turn the property into a high-rise hotel). The seller representative is explicitly told that he or she cannot sell the property if they cannot confirm what will be done with the property, and they must verify that it will not be used for commercial use. Both parties are provided with alternatives (i.e., BATNAs) should the current negotiation fail. There are several other minor details, but both principal parties are far less concerned with the financial aspects of the deal than with their top priorities, as described above. As a result, unless the buyer representative lies about the usage of the property or the seller representative fails to honor the direct requests of the family, there should be no agreement.

The purpose of this lesson is to first lecture and discuss with the class the importance of ethical behavior in negotiation, and to then provide an opportunity to roleplay a negotiation in which ethical limits are tested. The Bullard Houses activity is loosely based upon a real-life negotiation, and discussion of the actual repercussions of unethical behavior (e.g., lawsuits and tarnished reputation) are presented and discussed. It offers an opportunity to challenge what students say about ethics with how they act when placed in an ethical dilemma.

Activity Logistics, Results, and Student Reflection

Students were provided with their roles and all background information three days prior to the negotiation. The roles are provided early to offer students the time necessary to properly prepare for the negotiation. The students were placed in twelve pairs (i.e., one seller representative and one buyer representative) to perform the activity. Pairs were given sheets to record the results of the negotiation. The results sheet provided an opportunity to state whether an agreement was reached or not, and to provide relevant details. Individual negotiations lasted between 17 and 36 minutes. Results were compiled and discussed in class.

Ten of twelve pairs came to an agreement. The two pairs that did not come to an agreement cited the fact that the buyer representative would not reveal what would be done with the property, and the seller representatives, as a result, noted that they were not permitted to come to an agreement. Of the ten agreements, two seller representatives noted that they neglected the direct requests of the family and wanted to get as much money as possible in the agreement. Seven of the ten agreements were the result of active misrepresentation by the buyer representative. Lies primarily involved telling the seller representative that the property would remain residential. One of the agreements was due to confusion and a misunderstanding of activity details on part of the seller representative.

Students were asked to complete a brief survey after the negotiation. They were permitted a few days to consider responses to three questions. Below are the questions and selected associated responses.

(1) Briefly, please describe what it means to do business the "Jesuit" way?

  • Conducting business in the "Jesuit" way, refers to a constant presence of ethics, leadership, social justice, and service to others. Most specifically, I would say a strong presence on being morally and ethically minded is one of the main principles. This type of business is difficult to achieve, because in a world of half-truths, the Jesuit ideal is to always make the just decision. Sometimes it is more difficult to make the ethical decision because there is substantial temptation and greed in this world. For example, history can prove so many companies that did not behave with Jesuit ideals: Enron, Wells-Fargo, Worldcom, Tyco, etc.
  • As a Jesuit, you are supposed to live life "for and with others". This idea should be reflected in business as well. Doing business the "Jesuit" way includes conducting yourself to not only better yourself but also other people you interact with in every aspect of your professional life.
  • My understanding, from what I have learned in a wide range of courses that consists of philosophy, theology, and different business classes, business in the Jesuit way is a of thinking that if you do the right things then things will be okay. Not everything will go as planned, but if you are true to yourself that is what brings happiness. Building relationships is very important, and when we look in the business world, it is bonds between people that can make all the difference.
  • I think that doing business the "Jesuit" way is rooted in creating the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Xavier's mission is to serve society by forming students intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success. I think this speaks to the fact that there are many components that play a role in doing business the "Jesuit" way, and so I believe that it is important to keep all of these pieces at the forefront of your mind when you are doing any type of business.

(2) Do you believe courses within the Williams College of Business address ethics? Please briefly explain.

  • I think WCB does a sufficient job of teaching ethics. Assuming those that attend this University already have a decent moral compass, it is nice review!
  • I believe the Williams College of Business does a good job addressing ethics. For many of my upper level finance courses, we have devoted several classes and even weeks talking about carrying out business ethically and how there can be challenges associated with that. Specifically, ethically investing is something repeatedly discussed in the classroom.
  • Sometimes. A lot of business courses lose site of the importance of ethics and purpose. Professors would much rather talk about stocks and profit.
  • I do think the classes I have taken address ethics in a great way. The thing that really helps are the examples of real life stories that so many professors have shared.
  • I do believe that (Williams) tells us the importance of ethics. However, I do not think it puts us in situations to learn an ethical way. A case study or question presented to the class with a chance to think about a decision could be an easy way to see the class' stance on an ethical topic. I believe that with this live negotiation simulation where there was an ethical element present was huge and put the "buyer" in an uncomfortable position and that is what it is all about. If a student learns business ethics in college and gets exposed to the uncomfortableness then, they will have a higher chance of making an ethical decision later.

(3) Briefly discuss if ethics education has affected the way you view and approach ethical dilemmas? If applicable, as it pertains to conducting business (both real and via class simulations)?

  • Ethics education has affected the way I approach ethical dilemmas because it has changed how I view money-making opportunities. Even if there is a clear chance to make a profit in a certain scenario, I now reflect on whether there are any ethical violations. Particularly, for the Capital Fund I had a long discussion with several classmates on whether or not there was an ethical issue investing the school's money in a big tobacco company. We identified a profitable opportunity but took time to discuss ethics associated with the company.
  • Ethics in education makes you aware of situations that might not be ethical and to stop and question it, rather than just go along with what's been taking place. In general, I think that I view things similar to previously, but now entering the working world, I think that I am more aware of that type of behavior and better equipped to deal with it if I were to witness that going on in work environment.
  • It is difficult to answer this question because I feel that coming into Xavier, I already had a decent understanding of ethics. I can say however, as I have matured and become more exposed to the education provided by Xavier, I am definitely more ethical with my actual decisions vs. thoughts alone. In my opinion, one can be completely educated in ethics, but that may not stop them sacrificing said ethics for some other extrinsic motivation.
  • I have always had an ethical way of thinking, but I do believe the addition of it in my courses was/is beneficial.
  • I think there are some ways that an ethics education has affected the way that I view and approach ethical dilemmas. But, I don't necessarily think that Xavier's ethics education has had any impact. Because of my upbringing and growing up at a Christian school/in church, I feel like I learned most of my information and knowledge on ethics through those two institutions. I think moral and ethical values are something that each person needs to learn on their own, because in the end everybody is going to live and operate by their own ethical values, and an individual's ethical values is not something that can be taught.
  • I can't truly say whether or not ethics education has affected how I view and approach ethical dilemmas, because I don't know if the way I view the world is through my own personal growth as a human and connecting with others, through the classes I've received at Xavier, or (most likely) a mix of both. If a mix of both, where does one end and the other begin?

The last simulation related to the Bullard Houses really pushed the limit of ethics for real life scenarios. If I told the truth about what my client wanted, we wouldn't get the contract. I also thought in a side comment about bribing the mayor. Ethical? Probably not. Between society and classes I think I've learned how to properly spot what isn't ethical, but from then on it's up to me to decide what route I want to take regardless of education.

Conclusion

Personally learning more about Jesuit values and purposefully incorporating these values and ethics-based concepts has undoubtedly improved the MGMT 312 course. However, despite greater incorporation of these principles, the results of the in-class ethics related activity revealed problems that continue to plague the business community. Most students lied or failed to honor the directions of their principals and, in doing so, violated ethical standards. A review of the survey responses and comments put forth in class demonstrate that although students considered what was right and wrong, they simply wanted to get the deal done.

A cognitive dissonance appears to exist, as the majority of students argued that they are ethical, and that upbringing has a large effect on how one will act. However, when asked why they had acted unethically in the negotiation activity, little explanation was offered. I concur with one student's response; that case studies and role-playing simulations should be incorporated with greater frequency into courses. Doing so may provide greater opportunity for students to act and reflect upon ethical dilemmas. This will increase knowledge of the importance of ethical behavior prior to entering the workforce, and hopefully lead to less ethics-related violations in the business community.

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Ignatian Mentoring Program Project: Ethics in the Workplace


Alex J. Scrimpshire, Ph.D.

Julie Cagle, Ph.D. (Finance)

Introduction

Workplace ethics have been a priority for some time, but have recently come under much more scrutiny. When the scandals from companies like Enron, Adelphia, and WorldCom emerged in the public view in the late 2000s, there was a tipping point of frustrations and perceived lack of unfairness in the business world, which lead to the creating of the Dodd-Frank Act in 2010 (Verschoor, 2018), which required top management to be responsible for the reporting of their businesses’ financial reports. While this was an important step in ensuring accountability from those in control, this did not guarantee companies and individual employees would still act ethically. A 2018 survey found that employees who had noticed some form of ethical misbehavior (e.g., accepting bribes, stealing, sexual harassment, offering products that failed specifications, etc.) was at an all-time high of 69% (Verschoor, 2018). This does not bode well for the future of not only workplace ethics, but also the trust from the public that companies are actually doing the right thing.

Certainly, companies and individuals acting unethically is frowned upon, but one could conceivably not realize the entire toll actions like these have on the general working population. Research has shown that cheating can cripple companies (Walter, Ruddick & Farrel, 2015). Business leaders who behave unethically can create a cascading effect that leads to a lack of commitment from workers (Mitonga-Monga & Cilliers, 2015), which further leads to an erosion of the current and future customer base (Giacalone & Promislo, 2014), which obviously has downstream effects on more than just those involved in the unethical act.

Examples like those listed above are not new, nor are they isolated to certain industries or specific situations. Due to the nature of businesses to need to make a profit to be sustainable and the design of certain pay structures to (largely unintentionally) incentivize unethical behavior, acts such as these have always been prevalent, yet their profound impact on the larger whole has only recently began to be recognized. Therefore it is imperative we equip tomorrow’s business member and leaders with the proper ethical foundation so that when faced with these tough ethical dilemmas and ethically questionable practices, they can make a decision that is not myopic and only benefitting the few, but instead is beneficial for the greater good.

Course information (SHRM 200: Strategic Human Resource Management)

At the time of this project, Strategic Human Resource Management was a required course for all business students. The overarching goal of this course is to shed light on the day-to-day functions taken on by human resources departments and how they affect daily, yearly, and the career lives of employees. From my experiences, this course is eye-opening to many students as they have a limited (usually negative) view of what human resources do. The main objectives for this course are:

  • Students will be able to analyze and understand the strategic use of HRM.
  • Students will gain an understanding of HRM’s leadership role in organizations.
  • Students will gain an appreciation for and understanding of laws governing workplace behavior.
  • Students will be versed in the rationale and processes of recruiting workers and selecting employees.
  • Students will learn the policies, best practices, and considerations of setting wages.
  • Students will become aware of the processes for evaluating employees’ performance.
  • Students will gain an understanding of the processes for establishing & managing benefits.
  • Students will gain insight into techniques used for training & developing employees as well as how to measure the success of these programs.
  • Students will be made aware of steps the company can go through to provide employee health and safety.
  • Students will become aware of the many laws and policies driving labor relations.
  • Students will gain an understanding of the various issues to consider when dealing with international human resources.

Course Content Related to Ignatian Leadership

Since arriving at Xavier, I have heard the term ‘Ingatian’ and had developed a cursory understanding of its meaning but never had a full grasp of it in totality. For this project, I made it a point to gain a more holistic understanding of what it means to be an Ignatian Leader. From my readings, I have gleaned that, in a broad sense, to be an Ignatian Leader is to be one who makes good decisions (Mooney, Retrieved from https://www.xavier.edu/mission-identity/trustees/ignatian-leadership-mission-statement/leadership-in-the-ignatian-tradition, May 29, 2020). But what is a good decision? It is a decision that, first comes from inner truths that mirror God’s will. Second, it is a decision that seeks to benefit those around us who are affected by said decision. A good decision on the behalf of others can arise when we seek to take the perspective of others to give us a more innate understanding of how our decisions will affect others.

As this process relates to this course, management should strive to lead, grow, and encourage their employees. Human resources can be a cog in this process by giving managers the tools to more accurately evaluate and reward employees for their objective and subjective performances in such a way that employees are encouraged to make their own good decisions that lead to the greater good benefiting, which is usually the opposite effect of an unethical decision. Additionally, management should make decisions that also improve situations for the greater good (i.e., not making decisions or taking on risks that could bankrupt the company and force all employees to lose their job).

Cura personalis

Throughout this course, we discuss the importance of the individual employee. Indeed a main component of human resources is the ‘human’ factor, that your main focus should be people and not products or strategies. This is done in human resources by ensuring the employee has the correct training to accurately perform their job, they have the correct pay that reflects their contribution to the company, they are given the best working conditions so that they are safe, healthy, and free from distractions so their productivity can be at its highest, and they have legal protections in the workplace. Finally, they are appraised of their performance in such a way that is free from bias and rewards and recognizes their hard work.

Workplace ethics surveys, results, and student reflections

For my ethics-based activity, I employed a test-retest with a treatment study design. Early in the semester I provided the students with the Time 1 extra-credit survey asking a variety of business ethics-related questions. Then, during the semester, they were required to find a current article that discussed various ethical or unethical business practices examples of actual companies. They were to reflect on these articles, noting any unethical decisions, actions, or outcomes. Then they were to recommend actions, based on their knowledge of ethical treatment of employees throughout this course, of what they would do if they were in charge of this company. The purpose of this was to help them see that unethical decisions are not always due to some malicious intent (though it can be), and sometimes well-meaning policies and plans can have adverse effects. This report ideally gave them a good perspective of how, in a competitive environment, sometimes ethical anchors are broken free and businesses and individuals make decisions, they think are in their or the company’s best interest (to make a profit so they can pay employees and remain sustainable), yet they end up having deleterious effects on the surrounding employees or the company at-large (the opposite of cura personalis). Finally, the students took the Time 2 survey which was identical to the Time 1 survey with the exception of adding two open-ended questions that asked about how this class and this ethics project helped them learn more about ethics or changed the way they viewed ethics in the workplace. The ideal result would be that the Time 1 survey would show students are more driven by financial outcomes, such as profit, than ethics. Then, through this course and, in particular, this ethics report assignment, they see the needs for overt ethical considerations and how ethics and financial success do not have to be at odds.

Survey items

In an attempt to capture students’ ethical viewpoints, I selected a few ethically-related constructs for testing. All constructs were measured using a 7-point Likert –type scale (from Strongly disagree to strongly agree unless otherwise noted). These constructs are as follows:

Bottom-line mentality.  This four-item scale is one that seeks to measure an individual’s proclivity to focus on a financial bottom-line above and beyond anything else in the organization (Greenbaum Mawritz, Eissa, 2012). A sample item is, “I care more about profits than employee well-being.”

Ethical risk-taking. This 4-item scale was developed from research from Blais and Weber (2006). It looks to see how willing an individual may be to take an ethical risk. The stem of, “Please indicate the likelihood that you would engage in the described activity or behavior if you were to find yourself in that situation” was followed by an item such as, “Claiming more travel expenses than you actually had.” This scale was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from “Extremely Unlikely” to “Extremely Likely”.

Ethical perceptions. This ten-item scale was developed by Froelich and Kottke (1991) and Cole and Smith (1995) to measure how students and employees (one scale for each) perceive various ethical occurrences in the workplace. For the employee, the stem of, “Please indicate your degree of agreement to the following statement as you believe the typical businessperson (mid- or upper-level manager at a large company) would respond.” was provided. A sample item is, “The employee may need to lie to customers/clients to protect the company. For the student, the stem of, “Please indicated your degree of agreement to the following statement as you believe to be the ethical response (not only legal, but also honest, honorable, fair, responsible and socially acceptable).” The same sample item is, “The employee may need to lie to a coworker to protect the company.”

Unethical decision-making. This nine-item scale was developed by researchers looking to see how likely students would engage in various unethical scenarios (Trevino & Youngblood, 1990). Students are provided with the prompt, “How likely is it that you would engage in the behavior described?” A sample scenario is, “You get the final exam back from your professor and you notice that he's marked correct three answers that you got wrong. Revealing his error would mean the difference between an A and a B. You say nothing”. This scale was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from “Extremely Unlikely” to “Extremely Likely”.

Unethical workplace behavior.  This seven-item scale was developed by researchers to see the frequency in which employees have partaken in various unethical practices in the workplace (Moore, Detert, Treviño, Baker, & Mayer, 2012). A sample item is, “Discussed confidential company information with an unauthorized person”. This scale was measured on a 7-point scale (1 = “never” to 7 = “very often”) 

T1

For the Time 1 survey, with 37 students’ responses, the results were as follows:

Mean response for Bottom-line mentality (M = 3.54). Mean response for Ethical risk-taking (M = 2.5). Mean response for Ethical-perceptions (typical business person; M = 2.89), (student; 2.26). Mean response for Unethical decision-making (M = 3.94). Mean response for Unethical workplace behaviors (M = 1.43).

The open-ended responses are as follows:

Briefly, please describe, in your own words, what it means to do business the “Jesuit” way?

  • To do business with the upmost integrity. Follow Jesuit practices to not only improve quality of the business but the community as well.
  • Ethical and even if it sacrifices profit or money, to do what is right
  • it means to be ethical, honest, and morally responsible, looking to help the greater good more than oneself

Do you believe courses within the Williams College of Business address ethics? Please briefly explain.

  • Yes, all classes I have taken within the WCB has spoken on the topic of ethics specific to the subject of each class, giving me a well rounded idea of what is and is not ethical.
  • All of the courses I've been a part of within the Business school have addressed ethics and business examples in the real work that happen on a day-to-day basis.
  • Yes, I do believe there are various courses within the business school that touch the topic of ethics. In almost every business course I have taken, every professor has mentioned the importance of ethical business. They discuss the repercussions if unethical decision making in business, and how it not only affects the organization but people who have invested their time in that organization.

Briefly discuss if ethics education has affected the way you view and approach ethical dilemmas? If applicable, as it pertains to conducting business (both real and via class simulations)?

  • Ethics education has more than anything made me understand that ethics is very complex, and has made me more careful in approaching issues that may have ethical ties.
  • It has not really changed how I deal with ethic dilemmas. I still mainly base the decision on my religion and values.
  • It somewhat has and I always think about the end result during difficult situations. While my action is legal in terms of the law, it might not be the ethical and moral thing to do.

The results from this first survey were intriguing as the open0eneded questions showed that most students had a strong grasp of ethics and their value in the workplace. The unethical scale averages did not seem to be overly high, which was encouraging.

T2

For the Time 2 survey, with 36 students’ responses, the results were as follows:

Mean response for Bottom-line mentality (M = 3.58). Mean response for Ethical risk-taking (M = 2.32). Mean response for Ethical-perceptions (typical business person; M = 2.88), (student; 2.13). Mean response for Unethical decision-making (M = 3.83). Mean response for Unethical workplace behaviors (M = 1.53).

The additional open-ended questions for the Time 2 survey are as follows:

Please explain if your views on ethics in the workplace have changed this semester. Why or why not? If they have, was there anything in particular?

  • I would not say my view has changed because I had a large wealth of ethical knowledge before the semester. It is always a good reminder to discuss ethical issues, however.
  • Yes, throughout this semester I have learned that everything that happens unethical will come to light eventually.
  • Yeah, I understand that companies feel the need to conduct unethical behavior because of the competition. I could imagine how difficult it is to play fair in an unfair game. I think my views have changed on this because I used to find it easy to agree with the saying if you cant beat them, join them. I think now, quite differently, that a company can succeed very well without being overly greedy and succumbing to such behavior.

For this class, you were required to write a report on ethics in HR. Did the process of writing this report (reading about ethical commitments, unethical decisions) change your views on ethics in the workplace? Please explain.

  • The HR report did not change my view on ethics for business as a whole, but it did make me rethink the ethics of the tech industry. A lot of big tech companies are towing the line between ethical and unethical, which you never really hear about. All you every hear is how great big tech companies are and how great their products are.
  • I did a report on Wells Fargo and how their unethical work has effected them for years after the event took place. They lost the trust of their customers and of ultimately the American people by trying to make money the "easy way." This ultimately cost their company millions of dollars and had thousands of people lose their jobs because they wanted to get a leg up on their competition. The study made me want to try to be a model of business ethics when I graduate from Xavier next year, and hopefully grow to become a business leader in whatever profession and industry I choose.
  • This report on ethics allowed me to reflect on how I view ethics in human resources. By partaking in this activity, I was able to see how I view these ethical situations and choose how to act when faced with them.
  • Being a Healthcare Administration major, the ethics report really helped me see how management of healthcare organizations are always faced with ethical decision making. It is a process that is not easy and that a lot of people may be upset with, but when looking out for the overall health of communities, these decisions are made to eventually make a difference. It definitely gives me a lot more sympathy for healthcare organizations and management, and gave me some insight on dilemmas that may arise in the near future.

Conclusion

In analyzing the differences in average responses for the Time 1 and Time 2 scales, while there was some variability, none of the changes were statistically significant across the total population. Ideally, all the unethical scenarios would have decreased due to the topics we covered in class and going through the process of writing the ethical report, however, this did not occur. This may have been for a few reasons. First, our sample size was fairly small, with only 37 students at Time 1 and 36 students at Time 2. Second, analyzing the open-ended responses indicates that most students are highly aware of ethics and their workplace impact, either from their own personal background or classes taken at Xavier which have presented ethics in a new light. To this point, none of students sampled were freshmen, so they have likely all been exposed to ethics in some form in one of their classes at Xavier.

While I would have been excited to see the scores from these unethical surveys drop dramatically due to my teachings and my ethics report assignment, it was encouraging that the scores were already fairly low to begin with. This suggests that students enroll at Xavier with a high level of ethical knowledge and understand and this is only bolstered from their classes at Xavier. Hence, I feel out students are ripe to enter the workforce with the spirit of St. Ignatius and be strong Ignatian Leaders, who make good decisions, those decisions that will generate the greatest good for all involved, above and beyond the pull to be solely focused on making a profit in the corporate world. To be clear, making a profit and running a business do not have to be at odds as many studies have shown that when ethics is a priority within the culture and employees are treated in an ethical manner, companies can not only be sustainable, but also thrive (Davis, 1994).

Acknowledgements
Thank you to Julie Cagle for her insight, support, and guidance throughout this program. Her comments and experience were greatly appreciated. Additionally, I would like to thank the Ignatian Mentoring Program for providing this opportunity to better educate me in the Jesuit values and, in turn, better incorporate these value into my classroom curriculum.

References

Blais, A. R., & Weber, E. U. (2006). A domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale for adult populations. Judgment and Decision making, 1(1).

Cole, B. C., & Smith, D. L. (1995). Effects of ethics instruction on the ethical perceptions of college business students. Journal of Education for Business, 70(6), 351-356.

Davis, J. J. (1994). Good ethics is good for business: Ethical attributions and response to environmental advertising. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(11), 873-885.

Froelich, K. S., & Kottke, J. L. (1991). Measuring individual beliefs about organizational ethics. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 377-383.

Giacalone, R. A., & Promislo, M. D. (2014). Handbook of unethical work behavior: Implications for individual well-being. London: Routledge.

Greenbaum, R. L., Mawritz, M. B., & Eissa, G. (2012). Bottom-line mentality as an antecedent of social undermining and the moderating roles of core self-evaluations and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), 343.

Mitonga-Monga, J., & Cilliers, F. (2015). Ethics culture and ethics climate in relation to employee engagement in a developing country setting. Journal of Psychology in Africa,

            25(3), 242–249.

Mooney, Debra K . https://www.xavier.edu/mission-identity/trustees/ignatian-leadership-mission-statement/leadership-in-the-ignatian-tradition

Moore, C., Detert, J. R., Klebe Treviño, L., Baker, V. L., & Mayer, D. M. (2012). Why employees do bad things: Moral disengagement and unethical organizational behavior. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 1-48.

Trevino, L. K., & Youngblood, S. A. (1990). Bad apples in bad barrels: A causal analysis of ethical decision-making behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(4), 378-385.

Verschoor, Curtis C. "Survey of workplace ethics: Pressure grows to compromise ethics, and little progress is being made in developing strong ethical cultures." Strategic Finance July 2018: 17+. Business Insights: Global.

Walter, J., Ruddick, G., & Farrel, S. (2015). VW emissions scandal could snare other firms, Whistleblower claims. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/sep/21/volkswagenemissions-scandal-sends-shares-in-global-carmakrs-reeling.

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Can Ethics Be Taught in Operations Management Course?

Lifang Wu, Ph.D..
Mentor: Peter Bycio, Ph.D. (Management and Entrepreneurship)

Course Information (MGMT 903 Operations Management) Lifang Wu, Ph.D..

Operations Management refers to the systematic design, direction, and control of processes that transform inputs into services and products for external, as well as internal customers. The course is one of the few MBA core courses required by AACSB. Usually, various concepts and decision-making models related to issues such as operations strategy, process improvement, quality control, inventory, and supply chain management are introduced. The main purpose of this course is to provide XU MBA students with a thorough introduction to the concepts and skills needed to understand the role of the operations in the success of an organization, to lead efforts and make appropriate decisions in the operations functions of their organizations, and to analyze and improve various business processes.

Background

Business ethics education has received renewed interest as a result of corporate and other scandals around the world. When providing the education and training for future managers business schools clearly have a responsibility to acquaint their students with the ethical challenges they will face in the real business world (Felton and Sims 2005). Many critics believe business schools neglected ethics lessons in the past and virtually allowed students to go to practically any lengths to increase corporate profits (Yes, we teach a lot of techniques about minimizing cost or maximizing profit.) With the wake-up calls of ethical scandals, improving ethics teaching in business schools is becoming an increasingly imperative task (Stewart et al. 1996). For example, AACSB has focused attention on ethics teaching through its ethics initiatives, and in 2003 it revised accreditation standards regarding ethics. However, the need for more ethics coverage seems most acutely felt by students and employers. See, for example, the recent MBA cheating scandal at Duke University (Conlin 2007).

On the other hand, concerns still continue to arise about what to teach, who can teach, how to teach and how to assess the impact and effectiveness of ethics education. It is not the intent of this article to try to answer all these questions. Instead, we will focus on addressing one question: Can we teach ethics in operations class It is generally agreed that teaching business ethics should be an integral part of business curriculum through offering stand-alone ethics courses and incorporating ethics into various functional courses. However, the reality is many schools lack both a dedicated course and an effective integration of ethics in the curriculum.

Teaching business ethics in operations management presents several challenges. First of all, ethics did not receive close attention until recently, and many operations professors do not have the motivation and do not feel adequately prepared for teaching ethics. For example, many faculty members pursued their academic degrees directly from school to school, with no practical working experience in industry and little training in ethics or law. With the limitation of resources, asking them to develop expertise and teach ethics could be a tough sell. Secondly, the issue of integrating ethics into various core business courses is still an unresolved problem in general. Thirdly, many faculty are reluctant to give away precious class time to ethics topics, and do not want to squeeze ethics lessons into an already jam-packed syllabus simply because of the time constraint. Finally, there is also frequent debate about whether college students can benefit from an ethics class. The point is: will they change their moral compass after taking the class. As a result, many schools are struggling with how to make ethics an effective part of the curriculum.

Teaching Ethics in OM

Many scholars argue that ethics should be directly incorporated into key business courses and taught by the core business faculty (Dunfee and Robertson 1988). Stewart et al. (1996) also found that most business majors preferred to have ethics integrated into a number of courses rather than a separate course. The basic understanding is usually that ethics should be carried beyond separate elective courses and directly incorporated into key core MBA courses, and that functional faculty must be actively involved in teaching about business ethics. Along this line of logic, this work responds to the need of integrating ethics into operations management course by conducting an experiment for a pedagogical purpose.

Three sections of an MBA operations management class were offered in Spring 2007 (MGMT 903 sections 03A, F2, and 01A) in which 99 students overall were studied. The teaching objectives of the experiment are as follows:

1. Increase students' awareness of ethical issues in global supply chain management.
2. Be aware of various interests of different stakeholders.
3. Help them make informed and well-balanced ethical operational decisions.

Due to the time limitation of this two hour class (seven meetings of three and half hours), ethics topics were taught for about 60 minutes all together in two class sessions. One session was at the beginning of the class covering the global operations strategy issue and the other was in the last class covering international supply chain management ethical issues. Students also read one ethics case after class ("Secrets, Lies, and Sweatshops: How Chinese Suppliers Hide the Truth from U.S. Companies", Business Week, November 27, 2006). Specifically, the following topics were discussed:

1. Business process offshoring

  • Many "Made in USA" (labor intensive) products are not competitive because of the high labor cost.
  • Unethical practices are everywhere, not just in some foreign countries.
  • Business offshoring created some individual losers. But it also increased the purchasing power for US dollars in the domestic market (because of the lower price for imported products).
  • Business should be operated within a feasible region where every stakeholder is taken care of. Being lawful is not enough. Pursuing one or two goals (e.g., low cost) excessively by hurting other stakeholders' interests is unethical.

2. Job elimination and creation

  • Be aware that one lost job can potentially create a dozen jobs in some developing countries which supports families around the globe. And yes, we also know the loss of jobs in the US disrupts many local communities.

3. Corporate social responsibilities

  • As managers, we need to take care of all stakeholders, thus just getting "good quality low price" is not good enough.

4. Labor market in foreign countries

  • Be aware of the differences in everything: e.g., language, culture, legal system, immature market and, the legal systems in many countries are either highly biased or simply not working.
  • Insights from the Business Week case: Labor inspection is not working in many countries because of the widely-spread counter-inspection practices.

5. It is hard to make a 100% "right" ethical decision. Remember one word: Balance.

Results

The materials were generally welcomed by the MBA students. It was relatively easy to lead lively discussion on most of the topics listed above. In order to verify the teaching effectiveness of this one hour, we designed a survey form to test students' understanding on the issues we covered. The survey, adapted from an instrument developed and validated by Froelich and Kottke (1991), was designed to assess an individual's perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate ethical behavior. Each item was a statement that suggested questionable behavior in ethical situations. Subjects were asked to respond to each item twice, once as they believed the typical business person would respond and again according to what they believed the ethical response would be. They were instructed to assume that the typical business person was a mid- or upper-level manager within a small or large company. The term ethical response referred to behavior that is not only legal but also honest, fair, and socially responsible.

Values of 1 to 7 (strongly agree to strongly disagree) were assigned to the responses. Respondents were not asked to give their own answers regarding the ethical situations. It was believed that more accurate responses would be obtained by asking what the ethical should be and also their impression of the typical business practice. We found the following results from the survey:

1. There were significant differences between what the ethical practice was viewed to be, relative to what the typical business practice was seen as.

2. However, the ethics materials presented as part of the class did not produce statistically meaningful changes [as assessed via pre- and post-teaching surveys] in perspectives concerning these issues.

3. Slight improvement was identified for many items we explicitly discussed in the class.

4. For items we did not address directly, the survey results are purely random. There was no positive gain at all.

There were at least two major findings from this experiment. One, that business ethics can be successfully integrated as a topic in the operations management class. Two, adult student views concerning ethics do not change easily. Still, from the instructors' perspective, there was positive improvement in students' awareness and understanding for the issues. Future experimental efforts will focus on spending a similar amount of class time on a smaller, more targeted set of supply chain ethical issues.

References

Felton, E.L. and R.R. Sims. 2005. Teaching Business Ethics: Targeted Outputs. Journal of Business Ethics, 60: 377- 391.

Froelich, K.S. and J.L. Kottke. 1991. Measuring Individual Beliefs about Organizational Ethics. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1991, 51, pp. 377-383.

Dunfee, T.W. and D.C. Robertson. 1988. Integrating Ethics into the Business School Curriculum. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 847-859.

Stewart, K., L. Felicetti and S. Kuehn. 1996. The attitudes of Business Majors toward the Teaching of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, pp: 913-918.

Michelle Conlin, 2007. Cheating or Postmodern Learning? Duke's B-school scandal points up the fuzzy ethics of a collaborative world. Business Week, May 14, 2007, pp. 42.

Appendix: Sample of Survey Questions

Gender: _M _F Years of work experience: _____ Your age: ______ ID#:______
Please give answers that you believe to be the ethical responses.

1. Foreign factories must pay employees the wage that is determined by the local labor market and governmental regulations (minimum wage), but not necessarily the fair wage based on the perception of fair living in developed countries.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


2. In answering criticism of labor conditions at foreign factories, major American importers use strict inspection and monitoring to make sure oversea suppliers are following labor rules. This practice is effective around the world.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


3. In a labor-over-supplied country, if the employee is willing to accept whatever job available, it is ethical for the employer to offer an extra low wage (but over minimum wage). Clearly all stakeholders are happy in this scenario.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


4. Relatively speaking, violations of labor practices are only found in a small number of foreign factories. The majority offers fair wage and safe condition to their employees.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


5. In a competitive labor market, many laborers, especially from poor rural regions, seek to work as many hours as possible, regardless of whether they are properly paid. It is OK to utilize this as a means of cost reduction. This is also required by the fierce price competition.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


6. Nike found one of its Far-East suppliers was using a 12-year-old worker, and Nike was its only major customer. The ethical decision for Nike is to discontinue its relationship with this plant, even when the child worker's family depends on his job for making a living.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


7. It is sometimes necessary for a company to engage in shady practices because the competition is doing so. Otherwise the company will be out of business and everyone will lose their jobs, which is even worse in an ethics perspective.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


8. A company should overlook its supplier's wrongdoing if it is in the best interest of the company. For example, some wrongdoings help reduce the production cost which in turn reduce the price which buyers need to pay.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


9. A buyer should not care how results are achieved at foreign suppliers as long as the desired outcome (satisfactory product quality at low cost) occurs. Should they care, they need to operate their own factories there.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


10. Business offshoring creates no winner since job loss in the US leads to disruptions of many local communities, and manufacturing-offshoring destination countries are loaded with excessive pollution of wastes, water and air.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


11. Job migration makes the world better in at least one perspective, that is one job loss in the U.S. eventually creates two or three jobs in overseas developing countries [e.g., Vietnam] which benefits more families.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


12. Companies that have relied heavily on offshoring lost their relative competitiveness in the global market since they lost their manufacturing capabilities and their overseas suppliers sooner or later will be their rivals in the same battlefield.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


13. Foreign suppliers' "unethical" practices such as cheating and falsification are simply strong evidence that business offshoring is just bad.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


14. Keeping manufacturing jobs in the U.S. can definitely improve the welfare and competitiveness of the nation as a whole.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree

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Intuiting Ignatius In Corporate Culture: Ignatian Values In The Workplace

David B. Zoogah Management and Entrepreneurship
Mentor: Ariyachandra Thilini Management Information Systems

Abstract

In this exploratory study, I examine Ignatian values to see if they relate to corporate culture. Using values theory and content analysis methodology I find that (1) among the Jesuit colleges and Universities, there is no consistency in the use of the Ignatian values, (2) the Ignatian values are embedded in those colleges and universities that use them relative to Protestant Universities, and (3) the Ignatian values have some similarity with corporate values.

Globalization and technological changes have not only resulted in socio-economic dislocations in developed and developing economies but also heightened negative deviant behaviors such as xenophobia, discrimination, harassment, and exploitation in corporations (Macedo and Gounari, 2015). Consequently, some practitioners and scholars have called for examination of the standards that orient positive behavior of individuals and employees (i.e., values) particularly in this era of positive organizational scholarship. The values-based leadership literature (Fry, 2003; O'toole, 1996; Russell, 2001) is one response to this quest.

Given the role of Ignatian values in social transformation (Lowney, 2003), I wanted to examine how the Ignatian values relate to companies. Lowney (2003) suggests that "one company - the Jesuits - pioneered a unique formula for molding leaders and in the process built one of history's most successful companies." He focused on principles of self-awareness, ingenuity, love, and heroism. Extending that view, I ask: do the Ignatian values manifest in the standards that guide the behavior of employees, and what is their association with corpotate values?

This question is important because it establishes a link between those values and corporate activities. Given that corporate values guide organizations, a link between the Ignatian values and the values of organizations may show how the Ignatian values can be adopted in organizations. The study contributes to the Management, Organizations and Spirituality literature which focuses on the link between religious or spiritual entities and corporations.

 

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

In the Management and Organization literature, there have been several studies on values in the workplace: - Quinn's (1988) competing values framework; Jurkiewicz and Giacalone's (2004) values framework for spirituality in the workplace; Peterson and Seligman's (2004) virtues in action. A search of the literature did not show the Ignatian Values in the workplace even though there is substantive evidence of the influence of Jesuit education across the world over several centuries. This lack probably provoked the discussion at University of Creighton in 2010 on the question of how to live the Ignatian Values in the workplace. As Jorgensen (2010) observed living the Jesuit values might involve risks. Consequently, it is important to explore first how the Ignatian values relate to the workplace so as to minimize any potential risks. That knowledge can allay fears of uncertainty or confusion with regard to "the 'right' thing to do.

Thus this study is undergirded by the values and virtues theories as they relate to the workplace. There is ample evidence that values shape behavior in the workplace (Cameron and Freeman 1991; Denison and Mishra, 1995; Quinn, 1988; Quinn and Spreitzer, 1991). Peterson and Seligman (2004) also showed that virtues influence cognitions, affect, and behavior of employees. Lastly, Jurkiewickz and Giacalone's (2004) framework suggests that spiritual values can also influence behavior of employees in the workplace.

My purpose in this exploratory study therefore is to attempt to develop the Ignatian Values framework that might be used in the workplace. As an exploratory study, I was interested in a number of research questions. First, I was interested in the universality of the Ignatian Values across all the Jesuit colleges and Universities (AJCUs). The Mission and Identity literature at Xavier shows a number of dimensions. However, it is not clear if the same dimensions apply. So, my first research question was: Do all the ACJUs have the same Ignatian values?

Second, I was interested in how the Ignatian values compare to those of Protestant colleges and universities. Jesuit schools have catholic and Christian origins. As a result, it might be argued that the values of Protestant colleges would be similar to those of ACJUs. So, my second research question was: How do the Ignatian Values compare with those of Protestant colleges and universities?

Third, I was interested in how the Ignatian values might relate to the workplace. Specifically, I asked, how do Ignatian values relate to tasks at the workplace. Research shows that organizations tend to prefer individuals, either as applicants or employees, who share their values (Bretz, Ash, and Dreher, 1989; Schneider, Smith, and Goldstein, 2000; Schneider, 1987). Further, the attraction-selection-attrition theory (Schneider, Smith, and Goldstein, 2000; Schneider, 1987) posits that managers tend to be attracted to, select, and model individuals who share their values. The relationship between Ignatian values and workplace tasks might therefore have implications for making the world a better place to live.

 

METHODOLOGY

This study is exploratory. As a result, I did not have a priori expectations (hypotheses) on the direction and effects of the relationship. Nevertheless, I used methods often recommended for rigorous scientific research.

Sample

First, I included all 28 AJCUs in the study (see appendix 1). Second, I selected 28 Protestant Colleges and Universities as a comparison group using Christianity as a criterion. My expectation was that the values of AJCUs as catholic institutions will be similar to those of the comparison group. Third, I compared the values of these two groups to those of 50 companies in Ohio. Lastly, I compared the values of these three groups to a set of representative companies (n = 120) from various states of the US (see Appendix for the characteristics of the samples).

Procedure

I followed a number of steps to obtain and code the data used in this study. First, I downloaded the value or culture statement of each organization from its website. Second, I listed the values specified in the value statement in the code book. Third, to compare the Jesuit values with those of the Protestant values, I used the definitions provided by Xavier for teaching evaluation to create a code book (see appendix 2). Fourth, I used the definitions to code the value statements of companies in Ohio as a way of intuiting Ignatian values in corporations. Lowney (2003) suggests that the Jesuit values have applications in the corporate world.

Analytic Technique

I used content analysis, a popular technique in the social sciences (Berelson, 1952; Hsieh and Shannon, 2005; Holsti, 1969). According to Krippendorf (1980, p.403), "content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context." It has been used in all the domains of social sciences. It involves six steps: design, unitizing, sampling, coding, drawing inferences, and validation (see appendix 3). Design focuses on definition of the context or what is desired to be known. In this study, I was interested in knowing Ignatian values and how they might apply in the corporate world. In that regard, it is the linkage between religious and corporate environments. Unitizing centers on definition and identification of the unit of analysis. The units of analysis range from words, to phrases, to sentences, to paragraph, individuals, groups, and organizations (Krippendorf, 2012). I analyzed the values of companies and Jesuits. Thus, value statements constituted my unit of analysis. I drew representative samples from Protestant universities as a comparison to the Jesuit Colleges and Universities. I also drew samples from companies in Ohio (n = 50) as well as other states of the US (n = 120). The value statements were coded in two ways. First, I did category coding where values were classified as to whether they focused on individuals or groups. Second, I coded the value statements of companies in terms of the degree to which they cohere with Ignatian values. Both forms of coding enabled me to draw inference on how the variable accounts of coded data relate to the values of Jesuits. The validation was done using the sample of company values from the US. Table 1 summarize the process and its application in this study.

[INSERT TABLE 1 ABOUT HERE]

 

RESULTS

This study is exploratory. As a result, there are no confirmatory results. The purpose of this study was to examine Jesuit values. What I found is that the number of Jesuit values vary across schools. While some had six others had three. In addition, some AJCUs did not have the same terms describing the values. For example, Fordham University's stated values were "strive for excellence in everything you do", "care for others", and "fight for justice". The meanings of these are identical to "reflection", "solidarity and kinship", and "service rooted in justice and love" of Xavier University. Boston College did not explicitly state the Jesuit values but frame the standards as people, service, transparency, innovation, continuous improvement, and collaboration (see Figure 1)

[Insert Figure 1 about here]

Do these values relate to those of Protestant universities? The results (Figure 2) suggest that Protestant Universities have values that seem congruent more with service rooted in justice and love followed by reflection and solidarity and kinship. There were fewer values of protestant universities that match discernment, cura personalis, and magis.

I coded the values of small, medium, and large companies (see figure 3). The values were categorized as focusing on self-enhancement, relationships, and transactions. Values that focused on individuals and their growth focused on self-enhancement while those that focused on interpersonal and group relations are relational. Lastly, values that focus on exchanges, social and economic, are transactive standards. The frequency of these value categories is shown in Figure 4.

[Insert figure 3 and 4 about here]

It seems the values of companies relate to Jesuit values. As shown in Figure 5, Self-enhancement values - sincerity, and passion for mission, pride and curiosity and earning trust relate to Jesuit values of reflection, discernment, and cura personalis. Relational values - diversity and collaboration, do the right thing, and integrity also seem to link up with Jesuit values of solidarity and kinship; service rooted in justice, and cura personalis. Third transactive values - advocacy, customer-focus, safety, social responsibility, ownership, investment in future, and dedication to quality - also relate to cura personalis and magis.

[INSERT FIGURE 5ABOUT HERE]

DISCUSSION

The exploratory results suggest four major points of interests. The first point is selectivity. Selectivity refers to some AJCUs focusing on some values but not others. The reasons for the selectivity would have to be explored in future studies through quantitative or even experimental approaches. One reason might be the nature of the university - research-oriented versus teaching-oriented. The latter are more likely to emphasize more or all of the values than the former. Nevertheless, one major insight seems to be that not all Jesuit colleges and universities have the same standards of reference.

The second point is what I term embeddedness. Compared to the values of the Protestant institutions, those of the Jesuit institutions seem to be emphasized more. For example, the value of cura personalis is emphasized by most of the Jesuit institutions. This is due to the fact that the Jesuits are an order, a group of clergy adhering to specific norms as outlined by the founders. Ignatius specified certain norms or standards to be adhered to by all schools run by members of its order (Lowney, 2003). In contrast the Protestant Universities are not under an umbrella origin or founder.

Third, the Jesuit values can be intuited from job descriptions. I term this labor fusion. To the extent that corporations have values similar to those of the Jesuits, it is likely that the ideas of Jesuits can be corporatized (i.e., transferred easily to the corporate setting). The last point is secularization. By that I mean the mapping suggests similarity of Jesuit values to Protestant and secular organizations. Of course, Protestant organizations are religious or Christian. However, to the extent that the Jesuit values are similar to those of secular organizations, it suggests that the religious values can be secularized.

I acknowledge that there are some limitations with this study, the first being that it is exploratory. Second, there was no intercoder reliability. It is because of the exploratory nature of the study. Nevertheless, the approach is consistent with the science. It also seems to have predictive potential.

In sum, this exploratory study shows potentially interesting insights that can be explored in future. That is my next step: empirically examine Ignatian values in corporations. I hope to do so when I get funding for summer research. In the meantime, I shall incorporate the insights in my class to show how Jesuit institutions are distinct with regard to what they value and how that might impact the lives of the students now and after graduation.

References

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York, NY, US: Free Press.

Cameron, K.S., and Freeman, S.J. (1991). Cultural congruence, strength and type: Relationships to effectiveness. In R.W. Woodman and W.A. Passmore (Eds.), Research in Organization Change and Development, Vol.5. (pp. 23-58). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Denison, D.R., and Mishra, A.K. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization Science, 6(2), 204-223.Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The leadership quarterly, 14(6), 693-727.

Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Hsieh, H. F., and Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288.

Jorgensen, D. (2010). Daily Reflection of Creighton University's Online Ministries. https://dspace2.creighton.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10504/53168/082710.html?sequence=1andisAllowed=y

Jurkiewicz, C. L., and Giacalone, R. A. (2004). A values framework for measuring the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational performance. Journal of business ethics, 49(2), 129-142.

Krippendorff, K. (2012). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Krippendorff, K. (1980). Validity in content analysis.

Lowney, C. (2003). Heroic Leadership. Loyola Press

Macedo, D., and Gounari, P. (2015). Globalization of racism. Routledge.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Quinn, R.E. (1988). Beyond Rational Management. San Francisco: JosseyBass.

Quinn, R.E. and Spreitzer, G.M. (1991), "The psychometrics of the competing values culture instrument and an analysis of the impact of organizational culture on quality of life", Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 5, pp. 115-42.

O'toole, J. (1996). Leading change: The argument for values-based leadership. Ballantine Books.

Peterson, C., and Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Russell, R. F. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2), 76-84.

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437-453

 

 

 

Appendix 1

1. Jesuit Colleges and Universities

  • Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts
  • Canisius College, Buffalo, New York
  • College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts
  • Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
  • Fairfield University, Fairfield, Connecticut
  • Fordham University, New York City
  • Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
  • Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington
  • John Carroll University, University Heights, Ohio
  • Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York
  • Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, California
  • Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
  • Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Loyola University New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana
  • Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Regis University, Denver, Colorado
  • Rockhurst University, Kansas City, Missouri
  • Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri
  • Saint Peter's University, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California
  • Seattle University, Seattle, Washington
  • Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama
  • University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, Michigan
  • University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California
  • University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  • Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia
  • Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio

2. Protestant Colleges and Universities

  • Ashland University
  • Dillard University
  • Drury University
  • Earlham College
  • Elmhurst College
  • Fisk University
  • George Fox University
  • Guilford College
  • Heidelberg University
  • Huston-Tillotson University
  • Illinois College
  • Juniata College
  • Lakeland College
  • Lee University
  • LeMoyne-Owen College
  • Manchester University
  • McPherson College
  • Moravian College
  • Northland College
  • Pacific University
  • Piedmont College
  • Rocky Mountain College
  • Salem College
  • Syracuse University
  • University of La Verne
  • Wake Forest University
  • William Penn University
  • Wilmington College

Appendix 2

Definitions of Jesuit Values (Xavier University)

Jesuit Values (JV)

Meaning

Application to Job Descriptions (Tasks, Duties, and Responsibilities)</strong >

JV code

Magis

"the more universal good"; to work in a spirit of generous excellence

Extent to which job demands CHALLENGE and EXCELLENCE

CHALL

Reflection

to pause and consider the world around us and our place within it

Extent to which job demands KNOWLEDGE and REFLECTION

KNOWL

Discernment

to be open to God's spirit as we consider our feelings and rational thought in order to make decisions and take actions that will contribute good to our lives and the world around us

Extent to which job demands RELEVANCE and CONTRIBUTE TO BETTERMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION

RELEV

Cura personalis

to view each person as a unique creation of God

Extent to which job demands INTEREST IN THE ORGANIZATION

INTER

Solidarity and Kinship

To walk alongside and learn from our companions, both near and far, as we journey through life

Extent to which job demands RESPECT for other members of the organization

RESP

Service rooted in justice and Love

to invest our lives into the well-being of our neighbors, particularly those who suffer injustice

Extent to which job demands ETHICAL OR MORAL rectitude

ETHICS

Appendix 3

Content Analysis Procedure: Description and Application

 

#

Step

Description

Application

1

Design

Defining the context or what is desired to be known

Ignatian values in educational and corporate institutions

2

Unitizing

Defining and identifying the units of analysis

Values in cultural statements

3

Sampling

Drawing representative samples

Educational and corporate institutions

4

Coding

Description of the recoding units or their classification

List of values in statements and categorizing them

5

Inference

who how the variable accounts of coded data re related to the phenomena desired

How they relate to work behaviors - use of job descriptions

6

Validation

Provide validation evidence

Protestant educational institutions and corporations in US

 

Figure 1

Table of different ignatian values and different universities

 

Figure 2

Bar graph of the frequency of protestant universities that relate to ignatian values

Figure 3

Categories of Company Values

Bar graph of the average frequency

Figure 4

Number of Values by Size of Company

Bar graph of Number of Valuez by size of company

Figure 5

Correspondence of Company Values and Ignatian Values

Chart of the correspondence of company values and ignatian values

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