- Expanding Service Learning in the Athletic Training Program
- The Application of Ignatian Principles to Sport and the Development of the Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model (Quinn, 2006)
Incorporating Ignatian Pedagogy in the Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport:
A Revitalized Approach
- Reflection on the Integration of Ignatian Pedagogy into an Athletic Training Course
Tina Davlin-Pater, Ph.D., ATC
The Application of Ignatian Principles to Sport and the Development of the Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model (Quinn, 2006)
Ronald W. Quinn, Ed.D.
Mentor: Maggie King, R.N., Ph.D. (Nursing)
A value-oriented educational goal like ours -- forming men and women for others - will not be realized unless it is infused within our educational programs at every level (Kolvenbach 1989). This I believe is the primary purpose of the Ignatian Mentoring Program. How do we in such a diverse and complex organization as a university achieve such a charge? In Teaching to the Mission, faculty writes how they have instituted Ignatian pedagogy of competence, compassion, and conscience to their teaching and classes. Some disciplines seem to be a natural fit such as education, nursing, psychology, social work and occupational therapy, but courses in accounting, marketing, chemistry, math to name a few seem to be more of a challenge due to either the bottom line syndrome or the sequential ordering of constructs. The fact that faculty have been able to infuse Ignatian Pedagogy into their teaching is certainly a credit to them, as well as demonstrating the strength and adaptability of Ignatian principles.
The application of the Ignatian Pedagogy to sport would appear, on one hand to encompass the very essence of sport, but on the other hand, today could be viewed as an oxymoron. The sport society we have today has shifted from: its not if you win or lose, but how you play the game to whatever it takes to win. We have moved from the belief that the cream rises to the top, to last person standing. It is a sport system that starts at a very early age to select children out to find the best, rather than keeping children involved as long as possible so that the average and late blooming children have a chance for success.
The discussions in the two classes presented here centered on this dichotomy. Because sport for the most part is a zero-sum equation, one wins, one loses and because of the abuses, i.e., illegal recruiting, gambling, sexual abuse, cheating, steroids, etc., that we see at our universities, professional sport, and society at large, is it a realistic belief that Ignatian Pedagogy can be applied to sport? The answer is: it depends. Sport for example can unite as well as divide, it can be healthy as well as destructive, it can be fair and foul, and it can be expressive and controlled (Eitzen 2006). It therefore depends on which side of the divide we want sport to be on? We need to make the decision at all levels, particularly in our educational institutions that sport is presented in such a way that the Ignatian principles become truly embedded into our sport fabric.
As I began to reflect on my own teaching and coaching practices, I tried to follow what Vealey (2005) describes as balancing the triad, which means balancing optimal performance, optimal development, and optimal experience. I found that through the various coaching education programs that I instruct, the general focus on sport education was on performance, with development and experience given cursory attention. Certainly sport performance is important, we all play to win, but not at the expense of development and experience. Perhaps the only time performance takes ultimate center stage is at the professional level; at all other sport levels, especially sport linked to an educational enterprise balancing the triad should be the priority.
In an attempt to further develop a model that would support this triad, I examined two concepts. The first concept was a cycle of success developed by Edward Hallowell, M.D. (2002). His major premise is that as parents, the most important thing we want for our children is to become happy adults. We just want them to be happy in whatever they do. Dr. Hallowell presents and discusses a success cycle that has five sequentially linked phases: connectivity, play, practice, mastery, and recognition. When this cycle is started in childhood it provides the roots to adult happiness. Second, was the Ignatian mentoring program and in particular the primary Ignatian principles of competence, compassion, and conscience.
When I applied each model to sport, neither seemed to be completely applicable. The only real common link was the concept of competence. Hallowell's success cycle was strong in the social development area, but doesn't specifically address other concepts such as character, conscience or compassion. The Ignatian principles have strong moral components, and the principle of competence (the goal of every athlete and coach), can easily be applied. But how does someone show compassion for an opponent, or coach with a conscience when often your job is at stake? Is it compassionate to outscore your opponent by 50 points? Is it morally acceptable to tell a recruit that they will start right away, when you know they won't only to get them to come to your school? Obviously there are many individuals in sport who do demonstrate compassion and conscience, but how much value do we place on them on a daily and practical level?
The phrase, start with the end in mind with regard to sport does not mean how are we going to win, but what is it that we want sport to look like? If, as is commonly believed that sport builds character, then we must integrate character lessons into practices and apply them in competition. Character development through sport should be our end, but it does not just happen through participation; in fact it is the perfect breeding ground to learn just the opposite. Where else can you overtly break the rules, cheat, or deceive the referee/official with the criteria that it's only wrong if you get caught? When did acceptable deceit become as acceptable practice (Lumpkin, Stoll & Beller, 2003).
If then we want sport to build character, then how do we narrow the gap between rhetoric and reality? The question then becomes, not how do we talk or walk Ignatian, but how do we play Ignatian? To address this I've been developing a new model called: The Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model. This model is primarily a blending of the two models presented with the addition of one key factor primarily associated with sport: competition. In the I-CaSE model competition is viewed as one aspect of the construct - challenges, the four others include: connectivity, competence, compassion, and conscience. Character and leadership development is placed at the center to serve as the ultimate goal of sport participation.
The development and application of this model (a work in progress) is currently through my sport ethics (SPMG 410) and contemporary coaching courses (SPMG 280), as well as through community based sport education programs. One of the assumptions of this model is that nothing happens in isolation. You cannot coach or teach an individual in a technique or strategy (the physical) without taking into consideration their mental, emotional and social states. In other words, better known as cura personalis, educating the whole person (Traub 2002).
As stated above the I-CaSE Model is currently a work in progress, the refinement and application of the five areas through practical activities and exercises is currently underway. The information presented here specifically addresses how Ignatian Pedagogy should be or is currently applied in sport today.
Contemporary Coaching (SPMG 280)
Course Description: As sport continues to take a more prominent role in our society, sport education will assume a stronger role in community base sport. It is therefore incumbent of institutions that prepare individuals to be productive and contributing members of society, to educate them about sport development through a sound coaching education program. The purpose of this course is to identify the role of the coach in the sport setting from the technical, physical, psychological, and sociological perspectives. The course embraces the process of coaching from a developmental and character development viewpoint.
- The student will be able to identify the various functions and roles of the coach.
- The student will formulate a personal philosophy of coaching statement.
- The student will gain an understanding of a variety of coaching styles.
- The student will understand how age, gender, race and developmental stage influence the coaching process.
- The student will observe and document good coaching practices.
- The student will understand the process of teaching sport skills.
Sport Ethics (SPMG 410)
Course Description: The course is designed to provide an examination and discussion of ethical, managerial and moral issues related to individuals who work and participate in the area of sport and physical activity.
- To recognize situations where ethical management is important in sport and society.
- To better understand the relationship between sport participation, sportsmanship and character development.
- To understand gender and racial equity and it's various ethical issues when applied to sport programs.
- To examine the relationship between violence and aggression in sport.
- To understand the ethics and management issues associated with performance enhancing drugs, sports and society.
- To identify ethical and management issues associated with the media and sport.
- To identify ethical and management issues in higher education.
- To identify ethical and management issues confronting primary and secondary schools.
- To identify ethical and management issues associated with children's sports training and competition.
- To recognize and appreciate the ethical and management issues associated with coaching elite athletes.
Students in SPMG 280 - Contemporary Coaching must interview a coach. The purpose is to acquire a better understanding of the complexity of the coaching process. They follow a script of 20 questions. This is the last question: Ignatian teaching pedagogy is based on the principles of compassion, conscience and competence. Do you believe that these principles can be applied to coaching, if so how?
Students collected data from 27 different coaches. The three themes were common throughout the responses, however competence was the most discussed with compassion and conscience viewed as something you should just be showing, for example you must be able to show compassion to your athletes, or demonstrate conscience in terms of making the right decision. Ten representative responses are presented below:
- As an educator, my personal philosophy is to develop young people who have the ability to think critically, but with intellect and compassion. Coaches are teachers of a sport. That is the least important thing we do. True caring and compassion for our neighbors is fading in America. We have to teach our young people better than that. Treat everyone with dignity and respect.
- Absolutely, a coach needs to have understanding and compassion for their athletes. If a coach can't relate to their kids they have no chance. A coach also must know what is going on around them and in their athletes lives at all times to fully connect and get through to them. And a coach must be competent in his knowledge of the game to correctly teach a player. Teaching and coaching are two things I have done for many years, and the similarities are all over the place.
- Absolutely, you have to have compassion for your players for some of the things in football you make them do but you have to have some compassion for your opponents because every once in a while you will have a game that you could win 87-0 by halftime and you have to do the right things because sometimes the shoe will be on the other foot and you would hope the opposing coach would have compassion for you. Competence can apply to any profession; to be successful you have to be competent in what you are doing. As a coach I can raise the level of competence in my players by teaching them the right things and practicing. You have to have a conscience, you never know when the shoe will be on the other foot and there are some things I have done in coaching that have nothing to do with coaching because it is the right thing to do. You may have a kid who is at practice all the time working hard but he never plays, but you have to pick the time and you have to make sure they play, and you have to treat them right. Sometimes your conscience is what helps you make the right decision.
- Compassion - a coach should recognize and respect the feelings of each player and try to teach on positives and learn on mistakes. Conscience - Teach the player to obtain success by playing the game in the spirit of how it was suppose to be played. You should reward a good effort and be conscience not to expand on the bad. Competence- It is okay to win -winning is good but wrong at all cost. It is important to be good winner and remember always how it feels to lose.
- Yes, the coach needs to be compassionate about the game and to make sure their players respect them, and the coach needs to be conscious about knowing what they do is morally and ethically right and that they treat all their players the same way, and you need to be competent of the rules of the sport you are coaching and the sport itself.
- I believe they are applied right now. Look at all the professional and college coaches you see on TV. Obviously they are competent because they are where they're at. If you notice on a win or a loss level, the coach is very compassionate because he has worked hard with the student/students and feels their victories and pains.
- Sure. Compassion is definitely needed within coaching. Player's circumstances change from day to day and this inevitably affects the way they play. If a kid has a bad game, maybe he had something more important on his mind. Instead of running your mouth off at him at the end of the game, showing a little compassion and letting him talk to you about his play is one hundred percent more effective. Conscience and competence kind of go together. A coach needs to know what he is doing and should practice what he preaches. An incompetent coach only leads to frustrations between the players and coach as well as the parents and coach.
- The words that the Ignatian teaching uses are similar to the words that I believe define the perfect coach. Compassion and Friend to me means the same thing, which understands another person to the point that a friendship is made. Conscience and Honest are similar in the way that it demands of an individual to be sincere with yourself and the others around you. Finally Competence and Leader relate for the fact that to lead a team one has to be competent.
- When asked about the Ignatian teaching pedagogy, she replied with a look of utter befuddlement. After explaining the basis of this particular teaching pedagogy, she replied that it could be applied to coaching; however, not every coach can apply this to his or her athletes. The coach must already have a similar coaching style and philosophy in order to properly execute this pedagogy.
- On the lighter side, I use to be a Marianist and, as it happened in Fort Worth, St. Louis, Houston, Cincinnati, our archrivals were always Jesuits. Those "Ignatians" always gave us a hard time. At the same time, the virtues listed above were the same virtues espoused by the Marianists. These are the same virtues I have applied to the classroom and to my coaching assignments. They are very relevant.
Students in SPMG 410 - Sport Ethics were asked to respond to a series of questions that focused on the application of Ignatian pedagogy: competence, conscience, and compassion (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy: A desktop primer. Xavier University Ignatian Programs) as one aspect of their final exam (Fall, 2007).
Competence is defined as a) a sufficiency of mean for the necessities and convenience of life, and b) the quality or state of being competent. Competent is therefore defined as a) having requisite or adequate ability or qualities, b) legally qualified or adequate, and c) having the capacity to function or develop in a particular way.
Conscience is defined as the sense or consciousness of the moral goodness or blameworthiness of one's own conduct, intentions, or character together with a feeling of obligation to do right or be good.
Compassion is defined as a sympathetic consciousness of others' distress together with a desire to alleviate it.
These questions were:
1. Do you believe that these Ignatian principles are present and observable in today's sport environment? YES / NO. Please state why.
2. If NO to question #1, how would you apply or introduce these principles to sport?
3. If YES to question #1, describe how these are applied in coaching? In short, how would St. Ignatius coach?
Question 1 Student Responses: Eight-Yes, Seven-No, and Three-Yes & No
Question 1 YES Responses: All Yes responses contained some type of qualification statement; such as I believe that these Ignatian principles are present and observable in today's sport environment. While not all athletes, coaches, and parents possess these qualities I think they are in the sport environment as a whole. Four representative student responses are presented below.
- To an extent, I believe that these Ignatian principles are present in today's sport environment. Competence in sport definitely applies because in order to play sport, one must have the necessary ability and understanding of the game. Conscience is, I believe, for the most part that coaches attempt to teach players that one must play for the goodness of the game, but sometimes players (even some coaches) are in it just to win and will go against morals to win. However, I would say for the majority of athletes, they desire to play for the love of the game and thus are morally obligated to do good. Compassion for others is shown through a players' sportsmanship. I believe that most athletes are not just out there for themselves; they are out there for their teammates as well.
- I definitely think that competence, conscience, and compassion are observable in today's sport environment. However, they are not consistent throughout the entire sport world. Competence can be seen in many athletes and coaches who know the game they play and study film to improve their game everyday. Many players and coaches show their conscience when they follow rules and play for the spirit of the game. Coaches and players exhibit conscience when they exhibit sportsmanship rather than gamesmanship. Compassion is also present in sport. Players show compassion when they help each other up off the floor, when they congratulate each other after a game, and when they play the game to the best of their abilities, with no intention of hurting their opponents.
- I believe that Ignatian principles are present and observable but not to the extent that they should be. I believe that there are many coaches and athletes that exhibit competence, conscience, and compassion but also believe and can see many others who don't exhibit these principles because they are concerned with winning.
- I think that these principles are observable in the sport world today but they are quickly fading away. The emphasis on sport is changing from having fun to becoming a business in which someone can make money. So while these principles are seen today, they are nowhere close to what they were 20-30 years ago.
Question 1 NO Responses: Ignatian pedagogy not observable today. Four representative responses have been selected.
- I do not believe the Ignatian principles are present, let alone observable in today's sport environment. First, competence is always being lied about. For example, OJ Mayo living with his coach to go to school in a certain school district is not legal, but was done. Players who play injured do not have adequate enough ability to play, but since it is more than others they still do. Secondly conscience exhibited by many athletes is skewed. Players blame coaches rather than accepting the team just did not play well enough. Or young children blame themselves for a loss when really there were many reasons. Lastly, compassion is barely ever seen. Coaches encourage athletes to foul and harm other players. Also, when someone gets hurt nowadays, players usually never go down on one knee out of respect anymore.
- I think that if sport is played fairly and honestly the answer would be yes. As it is now, we place too much emphasis on winning in sport. This reward system encourages players to cut corners to gain an edge.
- I think you don't really observe these today. You see a lot of athletes who cheat and do things they shouldn't be doing. A perfect example is with the Mitchell Report that just came out that showed how athletes are doing anything to get better. You see athletes do whatever it takes to win. When Sammy Sosa corks his bat that is not good for the sport of baseball. When you see the Chinese swimmers who took those drugs to be better swimmers. This shows that people don't really care how they win they just want to win.
- I do not believe that all of the Ignatian principles are present in today's sport environment. I do not believe this because in sport today, we hear about scandals, as well as college players taking money from schools, different colleges cheating etc. I believe if "conscience" was present in sport today then a lot of the issues would not be on the news, such as the Michael Vick case, or the memorabilia heist with OJ Simpson. Another reason I don't agree is because I do not believe that compassion is observable today. I feel if compassion was observable, then there would not be a brawl between the Pistons, Pacers, and the fans. Also, there would not be cases where the Patriots would beat the Redskins by over 50 points, while still going for 4th down conversions.
Question 1 YES & NO Responses. All three complete responses are presented below.
- For some people these principles are not present. In a general sense I would say that Yes they are present. The media seldom covers positive sport stories. In this aspect we seldom see the good things in sport. People do teach and understand the principles involved. Also the people learning these principles do become successful. However, the lack of importance shown by the media to cover good stories in sport cause some people to develop bad ideas about sports.
- I think Ignatian principles can be seen in several players in the sport environment, but not in teams as a whole. There is too much violence, trash talking, intimidation, harmful coaches, etc., to say that competence, conscience, and compassion is the main components of sport. Sport today is defined by, too much winning, and not enough by ethical behavior and morality today define sport. Once teams begin to shift focus then Ignatian Pedagogy will be implemented.
- I feel as if the answer is yes and no because some players really do go by these guidelines in sport today; while others don't. For example the Mitchell report that just named so many players who everyone thought played fair and were honest. While other players just did it the right way.
Question 2: If NO to question #1, how would you apply or introduce these principles to sport? Four student representative responses are presented below.
- I would apply these to sport by teaching these at a young age to child athletes. Kids need to learn at a young age that it is not all about winning or competition, which are the opposite of these values. Competence can be taught to young kids to have responsibility. Conscience and compassion can be taught by a coach to be conscious of your actions. Also, one needs to be compassionate in general everyday in life. In regards to sport, you have to be conscious of what you do to others on the court/field. A coach can teach compassion to young kids through the lesson of teamwork and sportsmanship.
- I would apply these principles because if you don't follow the, you shouldn't be playing. I would also post these in everyone's lockers, so when they come it that is the first thing they see. I would also have one practice where we go through these and how they are important, just to see what everyone's opinions are of these three. Throughout the season just keep repeating them.I would apply and introduce these principles to sport by introducing them at a young age to those participating in sport. Not only is it the coach's role to show, teach, and demonstrate these qualities, but the parents need to do that as well. If I were a coach I would spend a part of practice that doesn't deal with the physical attributes of sport, but the mental and emotional attributes as well. I think that although a lot of these qualities are inherent, they can be built upon with proper attention. I would give practice scenarios at practice, show video clips, and maybe even have a session with the parents to discuss their role in all of it.
- I would introduce Ignatian principles by stressing the importance of morality to my team. It starts by educating coaches, and it will be introduced to the athletes by the behavior the coach tolerates. If someone is violent at practice and a coach does nothing, they are actually saying the behavior is acceptable. If coaches demonstrate competence, conscience, and compassion and expect it from the players it will become a big part of sport.
Questions 3: If YES to question #1, describe how these are applied in coaching? In short, how would St. Ignatius coach? The four student responses presented below are representative of the eight total responses.
- St. Ignatius would have a competent team. One that is highly skilled and motivated to play their best. The team would desire competition and fair play over winning. St. Ignatius would also have a team with a conscience. His players would know the ethical issues in sport and the correct way to behave when these issues arose. His team would be known for their good sportsmanship, and be a team others respected and enjoyed playing against. His team would also be compassionate. They would treat each other as family and do everything possible to help each other improve. They would respect their opponents and demand respect in return.
- I think these principles - competence, conscience, and compassion - are applied in coaching through teaching moral values. I have had friends act inappropriately on the track and the coach kicked them out of the meet and suspended them because he felt it was the right thing to do. I understand that not all coaches are good but that overall they are and that sport is a very positive thing.
- I think that these principles would make up a good coach or role model. If St. Ignatius were a coach he would teach competence by showing them the true meaning of sport, which is teamwork and fair competition. I think St. Ignatius would teach fair and moral competition and would have the belief that winning is not everything; this is his example of conscience. St. Ignatius would exhibit compassion by caring for the general well being of his athlete, not just as athletes, but also as people in general. This is how I think the Ignatian principles are applied in coaching, more specifically how St. Ignatius would coach.
- Its' hard to be a coach in today's society because the only thing that matters is "what have you done for me lately?" So coaches have to win in order to keep their jobs and sometimes hey must act unethical to do so. St. Ignatius would coach very ethically. He would not accept a win if it was done by dirty means. He would think of winning as playing fair.
Students today have grown up in our present, over-organized, over competitive youth sport environment which took root in the early 1980's. This environment has gone relatively unchecked and unregulated for the past 25+ years. Generally the only qualifications an adult needs to be a youth coach is: I'm available! The question that I always ask whenever conducting a coaching education program or presentation throughout the country is: why does an adult need a four-year degree in education to work with a child from 9:00 - 3:00, but needs no preparation to work with that same child from 3:00 - 9:00? How do the needs of children change so dramatically at 3:00! The answer . . . they don't.
The responses from the students and the comments from the coaches reflect some of the paradoxes mentioned in the beginning of the article. However it does indicate that students are beginning to transfer these principles (compassion, conscience, and competence) into the sport arena. Some believe that they are already present and others believe they can and should be present. But believing and acting are two separate issues. It is my hope that when the opportunity to act presents itself, that the action would make St. Ignatius proud.
One goal of both of these courses is to prepare individuals for the future. I would content that 90% will someday coach their child in some sport activity. It is therefore part of our responsibility to plant the seeds now. Father Graham (2006) stated:
That the education that we offer our students in a University that calls itself Jesuit must be holistic and integrated, must be exacting but adaptable, must be reflective, must be ongoing, must be practical but located within a broad horizon, must be finally ordered to something greater.
The legendary John Wooden is quoted as saying: You won't know what kind of teacher you were until 20 years after the fact (Nater & Gallimore 2006). I would concur, but would like to conclude with email correspondence received February 2008:
I am one of your former students from last year and saw that you were honored in Lehigh Valley from the website announcements. I also saw that you were in Greensboro, NC just before that, I am in Kannapolis (less than an hour away). I just wanted to congratulate you and let you know that I gained valuable experience/and a changed perspective in your Sport Ethics class. Thank you so much, and congrats!! Sport Ethics student, Spring 2007.
Perhaps there is a sport Magis, that is alive and well (Traub 2002).
Eitzen, D.S. (2006). Fair and foul: Beyond the myths and paradoxes of sport. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield.
Graham, M. (2006). The influence of the spiritual exercises on six dimension of Jesuit Education. Academic Day address (October 3).
Hallowell, E.M. (2002). The childhood roots of adult happiness. New York, NY: Ballatine Books.
Kolvenbach, P. (1989). Themes of Jesuit Higher Education. As summarized by Callahan, J. IMP-handout.
Lumpkin, A., Stoll, S., & Beller, J. (2003). Sport Ethics: Applications for fair play, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Nater, S. & Gallimore, R. (2006). You haven't taught until they have learned: John
Wooden's teaching principles and practices. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Traub, G. W. (2002). Do you speak Ignatian? A glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit circles. Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University.
Vealey, R. (2005). Coaching for the inner edge. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Linda J. Schoenstedt, Ed.D.
Mentor: Ann Marie Tracey, J.D. (Accountancy and Business Law)
Goal of the Ignatian Mentoring Program (IMP): To facilitate the incorporation and assimilation of the Ignatian vision into the professional identities of XU faculty (IMP 2012).
We all receive our information today in virtual and real time. The local news or ESPN's Sports Center operate at a snail's pace compared to new media deliveries like Facebook updates, Twitter, YouTube, and cell phone texts (Schoenstedt & Reau, 2010). Through these vehicles, it becomes obvious that there are an abundance of issues in our society and culture related to ethics and diversity in sport that are at the forefront of our lives every day. It may sometimes appear that ethical and diversity issues are limited to professional and collegiate sport but this is far from the truth. Unethical behavior often begins at the youth and interscholastic level. A few examples of behavior include but are not limited to: recruiting violations, illegal benefits, violence, hazing, performance enhancing drugs, gender and racial inequity, homophobia, bullying, improper behavior or language of coaches and bias against people with disabilities. The people in charge of athlete participation such as administrators, coaches, parents, and fans must be aware of the influence they wield in modeling ethical behavior.
The causes of these examples of behavior in our sport society are up for debate, but perhaps we could look at Crone (1999) who proposed the development of a theory of sport around three independent variables: a) the degree of emphasis on winning, b) the degree of emphasis on extrinsic rewards (e.g., money, power, and prestige), and c) the amount of bureaucratization. The pressure on athletes and coaches to win is intense and may promote the idea of gamesmanship (unethical behavior in competition). Even in interscholastic sport where no scholarships exist and acquiring an education is proclaimed as the primary objective, the culture of sports often dictates a win at all costs attitude. The job security of a coach may depend on it. In addition, the spiraling cost of a college education, and the lure of professional sports salaries, encourages parents to push their children into athletics like never before. Unfortunately, almost 70% of athletes quit organized sport by the time they are 13 years old. The top two reasons are the behavior of coaches and parents (Martens, 2008; National Coaching Report, 2009).
More recently, the issues of justice and fairness, ethical behavior and diversity education when working with multiple kinds of participants of all ages have grown exponentially. Racial equality continues to be an issue, as does the increased awareness and prevalence of hidden disabilities and sexual orientation.
Perhaps it can be best viewed through Xavier's Academic Vision Statement that wants to "challenge a diverse and capable student body intellectually, morally and spiritually". Xavier's classes are intended provide students with questions of human values and ethical behavior through a curriculum intended to stimulate critical thinking and interdisciplinary learning" in our society. (Academic Vision Statement, Xavier University, 2012). As a Xavier University professor in Sport Management, I am uniquely situated to provide information, knowledge and leadership regarding the many issues related to diversity and ethics in the sport industry.
Character in Sport
Millions of people, especially children, participate in sport because we believe (in part) that sport teaches hard work, teamwork and to be good citizens. However, the popularity of sport does not necessarily mean that it teaches character and ethical behavior. Rather, it could be argued that sport reflects societal values (Lumpkin, 2011). While character may not be automatically learned through sport, the learning process can be strengthened through the persistent and consistent efforts of parents, teachers, coaches and administrators. Those who have been viewed as having character are described as benevolent, compassionate, humble, honest, loyal, respectful and responsible (Lumpkin, 2011). Gough (1997) states that, "Ethics is a matter of being good (character) and doing right (action). Sportsmanship is a matter of being good (character) and doing right (action) in sport," (p.21). It seems clear, therefore, that ethical behavior, integrity, and sportsmanship cannot be separated. Further, ethical behavior as it pertains to diversity also should not be separated out as an unrelated issue.
Despite our intellectual awareness that the good in sport (ethics) far outweighs the bad; the media and other anecdotal stories tell us something else entirely. In our "winner take all" environment, the ethical decisions we make about right and wrong and the subsequent actions we take are compromised in return for success. Cheating is ubiquitous in society and sport because if you don't get caught, the benefits far outweigh the risks or penalties. As a former collegiate coach at a Big Ten University, I can attest that while I know right from wrong and have knowledge of what is ethical, fair and just...it can be incredibly difficult to be a person of character day in and day out. Being a good and ethical person all of the time takes reflection, active practice and encouragement especially in today's sport culture.
This past few years has provided an inordinate number of ethical and diversity issues. I only need to throw out a few instances and examples and my students nod knowingly. However, when asked to critically think about ethics, character, and sportsmanship as related to these current events, my students give canned answers that are clearly a result of what they believe are my expectations for the "right" answer. Once given, we congratulate each other on our wonderful values and move on.
In a conversation with my mentor, Ann Marie Tracey, JD as well as dialogue with my colleagues in Sport Studies, particularly Tina Davlin-Pater, Ph.D., ATC, Lisa Jutte, Ph.D, ATC, and Ronald Quinn, Ed.D., I started to explore a sincere interest in Ignatian pedagogy. The Manresa experience as a new faculty member gave me some initial insights into the Jesuit mission but the normal patterns and rhythms of teaching that I was most familiar with remained the cornerstone of my classes. Most of us tend to stay with, or revert back, to that with which we are most familiar. It wasn't that I didn't teach Jesuit and Ignatian principles more often than not...it was that I didn't do it consciously.
Admittedly, sounding erudite and scholarly was my first priority when I decided to participate in the Ignatian Mentoring Program (IMP) and found out there was a project. But in my first meeting with Ann Marie Tracey, she basically said to "stay out of my own way and write about something with which I really connected." Well, I would like to think that I connect with and love teaching and coaching. As I was delving deeper into this project and reading some interesting materials on the Xavier website, I also connected with Parker J. Palmer's essay called "The Heart of a Teacher" (2009).
Teaching, like any truly human activity, emerges from one's inwardness, for better or worse.... Viewed from this angle, teaching holds a mirror to the soul. If I am willing to look in that mirror, and not run from what I see, I have a chance to gain self-knowledge--and knowing myself is as crucial to good teaching as knowing my students and my subject.
We need to open a new frontier in our exploration of good teaching: the inner landscape of a teacher's life. To chart that landscape fully, three important paths must be taken--intellectual, emotional, and spiritual--and none can be ignored. Reduce teaching to intellect and it becomes a cold abstraction; reduce it to emotions and it becomes narcissistic; reduce it to the spiritual and it loses its anchor to the world. Intellect, emotion, and spirit depend on each other for wholeness. They are interwoven in the human self and in education at its best, and we need to interweave them in our pedagogical discourse as well.
Essentially, after long reflection about my teaching and the IMP project, I felt that I was spending too much time preparing to teach content and only paying "lip service" to the pedagogical opportunity for my students to truly engage in their beliefs about ethics, character, integrity and the like in our American sport culture in addition to acceptance for diversity. In other words, I wasn't giving them the time and vehicle by which they could use the content of this particular graduate course to reflect and after that actively engage in an assignment that could take these reflections and content forward to their various stakeholders. In effect, empowering these students to become change agents in their own right should be equally important.
Reading Robert A. Mitchell's, SJ (1988) piece on the "Five Traits of Jesuit Education" in Traub's "A Jesuit Education Reader" (2008), helped to connect more dots as he discussed the third characteristic of Jesuit education that is preoccupied with ethics and values for both the personal and professional lives of our graduates (Mitchell, 1988). Specifically, he stated, "...Jesuit institutions today feel compelled by their tradition to raise questions for their students, not through sloganeering and political maneuvering, but in a way that is proper for higher education: through learning, research, reflection, and imagination" (p. 112).
This idea of reflection and becoming a "change agent", while not necessarily original, was something that I decided to spend more time on in an online graduate class I will teach at Xavier University entitled Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport. Specifically, I chose to integrate the following three principles.
1. Cura Personalis
(Latin meaning "care for the [individual] person") - This piece of Jesuit/Ignatian pedagogy "establishes a personal relationship with students, listens to them in the process of teaching, and draws them toward personal initiative and responsibility for learning" [see "Pedagogy, Ignatian/Jesuit"]).
This is an integral component for me as a teacher, and as importantly, how I want to imbue my students with an opportunity for continual self-awareness and reflection that they can pay forward to future constituents.
"A process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good. For Ignatius the process involves prayer, reflection and consultation with others - all with honest attention not only to the rational (reasons pro and con) but also to the realm of one's feelings, emotions and desires.
When individuals (students) are faced with making decisions of an ethical nature, the goodness of God should lead them"(Mission and Identity, Xavier University). Ignatius, in his Spiritual Exercises, said, "in the case of a person leading a basically good life, the good spirit gives "consolation"--acts quietly, gently and leads one to peace, joy and deeds of loving service--while the bad spirit brings "desolation"--agitates, disturbs the peace and injects fears and discouragement to keep one from doing good (Mission and Identity, Xavier University).
Making better choices and actively reflecting on them requires practice and follow through. Students must be given these opportunities to grow and be at peace with the idea that they have done everything they can to make the best decisions possible.
3. Men and Women for Others
Pedro Arrupe (1973) called for a re-education to justice and stated:
"Today our prime educational objective must be to form men-and-women-for-others... people who cannot even conceive of love of God which does not include love for the least of their neighbors; people convinced that love of God which does not issue in justice for human beings is a farce...." (Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/terms-m.cfm#Men_and_Women).
In "Assembly '89", Peter-Hans Kolvenbach (1989), asked that we teach our students to make "no significant decision without first thinking of how it would impact the least in society" (p. 3). He goes on to say several years later, "The real measure of our Jesuit universities, [then,] lies in who our students become. Tomorrow's "whole person" cannot be whole without a well-educated solidarity. We must therefore raise our Jesuit educational standard to "educate the whole person of solidarity for the real world" (Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/terms-m.cfm#Men_and_Women).
As teachers and coaches, we live in a society that should have as an expectation, a demonstration of goodness to our athletes and participants that we can find in living the Jesuit mission through Ignatian pedagogy. According to Kolvenbach, "Every Jesuit academy of higher learning is called to live in a social reality and to live for that social reality, to shed university intelligence upon it and to use university influence to transform it" (Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/terms-m.cfm#Men_and_Women).
How we model acceptance and ethical decision-making through Ignatian pedagogy, (especially in the sport culture), should be the foundation from which we teach. Becoming an advocate or change agent is essential to the proper development of our youth especially.
When I look back over the past several weeks and months learning and in discussion with mentors, colleagues and friends trying to pull all of this together, I find the beginnings of gestalt. It occurs to me that while I went into the IMP to learn more about the Jesuit mission and Ignatian pedagogy for teaching TO STUDENTS, I came out with a better understanding of how to be a better person FOR MY STUDENTS. I need the continual reflection and self-awareness on ethics, integrity, character, and sportsmanship at least as much as my students do. I find myself doing a better job of making concerted efforts to incorporate the Ignatian principles of Discernment, Men and Women for Others, and Cura Personalis in my pedagogy and in the things I do every day including my initial steps for this particular class in the psycho-social aspects of sport.
So... did I achieve the goal of the IMP program? I believe that I have made a strong start by facilitating the incorporation and assimilation of several pieces of the Ignatian vision into my professional identity and for my class(es).
I have attempted to revitalize Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport going forward by adding a Module to include a study of ethics and diversity through the lens of Ignatian principles in the Jesuit mission. This will be accomplished by adding a conscious reflection component (Journal, Scenario Creation, Discussion Boards) that is connected to Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Women for Others through Traub's book. I have added an educational presentation assignment incorporating those principles as well. Through this Module, the students have the opportunity to reflect on several issues arising in sport culture as well as be an active change agent for diversity and ethics in sport through aspects of the Jesuit Mission.
One final observation about this experience resulted in an unexpected bonus. Throughout this process I met some really great people. I had a mentor that gave me the best piece of advice which was to find something to write about with which I truly connected. And, it fostered meaningful dialogue with the colleagues in my department of Sport Studies who also helped me by discussing their own ideas, experiences, knowledge and understanding of the Jesuit mission and Ignatian pedagogy. As a relatively new member of the Xavier community, it was an excellent means of getting to know them and their personal connections to, and interpretations of, the Jesuit mission and Ignatian pedagogy.
Many thanks to all of you!
Academic Vision Statement, Xavier University, 2012.
Aruppe, P. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from: http://www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/terms-m.cfm#Men_and_Women
Crone, J.A. (1999). Towards a Theory of Sport. Journal of sport behavior, 22(3), Sep. 01, pp. 321-340.
Davlin-Pater, T. (2012). Athletic Training Program. Reflection Journal Assignment.
Dieffenbach, K. (2009, November). Our profession is a powerful tool: A qualitative exploration of coaches' thoughts on ethics in sport. Presentation at the International Conference on Coaching Education in Vancouver, Canada.
International Council for Coach Education [ICCE]. (2011). Information on ethics in coaching. Retrieved from: http://www.icce.ws/ethics/index.htm
Kolvenbach, P. (1989). Themes of Jesuit Higher Education. As summarized by Callahan, J. IMP Materials.
Kolvenbach, P. Retrieved April 17, 2012 from http://www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/terms-k.cfm
Lumpkin, A. (2012). Building Character Through Sports. Strategies. July/August 2011.
Martens, R. (2008). Successful coaching (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics, IL, ISBN10: 0736052593; ISBN13: 978073605259
National coaching report. (2008). National association for sport and physical education national coaching report. Reston, VA. National association for sport and physical education.
Palmer, P.J. (2009). The Heart of A Teacher; Identity and Integrity in Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.xavier.edu/mission-identity/programs/conversation-hour-2009.cfm , March 23, 2012.
Quinn, R. (2006). The Application of Ignatian Principles to Sport and the Development of the Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model. IMP. Xavier University.
Schoenstedt, L.J. & Reau, J. (2010). "Running a social media newsroom: A case study of the 2009 Cincinnati Flying Pig Marathon. "International Journal of Sports Communication", 3 (3), 377-386.
Stoll, S. & Beller, J.M. (2010). Moral reasoning in athlete populations: A 20-year review. Retrieved from http://www.educ.uidaho.edu/center_for_ethics/research_fact_sheet.htm
Stoll, S. (2012). The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character. Strategies. March/April 2012.
Traub, G.W. (2008). A Jesuit Education Reader. Contemporary Writings on the Jesuit Mission in Education, Principles, the issue of Catholic Identity, Practical Applications of the Ignatian Way, and More. Loyola Press, Chicago, IL.
USA Coaching Coalition. Retrieved from http://usacoaching.org/
Vickers, B. & Schoenstedt, L.J. (2010). "Identity formation throughout varying levels of coaching expertise". Sports Science Review, Vol. XIX, No. 5-6, 209-230.
Xavier University - Sport Administration
SPMG 570-91 Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport
3 Credits -- Graduate
Instructor: Dr. Linda Schoenstedt
Office: 322 Joseph Hall
This is an elective, 100% online course within the Sport Administration program. This course is 5 weeks and as such is very intensive and requires strict attention to deadlines and organization.
An introduction to the historical, sociological, and psychological aspects of sport in society and how it relates to individuals, groups and organizations.
Jesuit Mission and Ignatian Principles:
Xavier's mission is to educate their students. This is, in part, accomplished through "the interaction of students and faculty in an educational experience characterized by critical thinking and articulate expression with specific attention given to ethical issues and values" (Xavier Mission Statement, 2011).
Further, "Xavier is an educational community dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, to the orderly discussion of issues confronting society" [and]
Xavier aims to provide all students with a supportive learning environment which offers opportunities for identifying personal needs, setting goals, and developing recreational and aesthetic interests and skills for daily living and leadership. The self-understanding and interpersonal development that result are vital corollaries to a student's academic development" (Xavier Mission Statement, 2011).
As a result, this course will integrate the Ignatian principles of Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Woman for Others as they relate to Diversity and Ethics within the socio-cultural aspects of sport and through the use of a reflective journal and an educational presentation Power Point presentation.
This course also aligns with the following accreditation standards and benchmarks for the profession:
A. COSMA Standards (formerly SMPRC): This course satisfies the Common Professional Component (CPC) topical area that includes: A. Social, psychological and international foundations of sport.
B. NASPE National Coaching Standards
Domain 1 -- Philosophy and Ethics
Standard 1: Develop and implement an athlete-centered coaching philosophy.
A well-developed coaching philosophy provides expectations for behaviors that reflect priorities and values of the coach. An appropriate coaching perspective focuses on maximizing the positive benefits of sport participation for each athlete.
- Identify and communicate reasons for entering the coaching profession.
- Develop an athlete-centered coaching philosophy that aligns with the organizational mission and goals.
- Communicate the athlete-centered coaching philosophy in verbal and written form to athletes, parents/guardians, and program staff.
- Welcome all eligible athletes and implement strategies that encourage the participation of disadvantaged and disabled athletes.
- Manage athlete behavior consistent with an athlete-centered coaching philosophy.
Domain 4 -- Growth and Development
Standard 18: Provide athletes with responsibility and leadership opportunities as they mature.
Sport provides an atmosphere for trial and error through practice and competition. Sport also allows opportunity for athletes to be challenged by additional responsibility. Through these opportunities, athletes learn how to deal with conflict, engage in problem solving, and seek positive resolutions. The coach should engage athletes in opportunities that nurture leadership and teamwork that can be learned on the field and exhibited in life.
- Teach and encourage athletes to take responsibility for their actions in adhering to team rules.
- Design practices to allow for athlete input and self-evaluation.
- Communicate to athletes their responsibility in maintaining physical and mental readiness for athletic participation and preparation for competition.
- Encourage athletes to practice leadership skills and engage in problem solving.
- Provide athletes with different tools to manage conflict.
- Provide specific opportunities for athletes to mentor others.
Domain 5 -- Teaching and Communication
Standard 24: Teach and incorporate mental skills to enhance performance and reduce sport anxiety.
Mental skill training assists the athlete in improving athletic performance. The variety of tools available allow the athlete to manage stress and direct their focus on their performance.
- Demonstrate appropriate use of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to enhance motivation and learning.
- Share with athletes effective stress management coping strategies.
- Utilize sound mental skills to build athlete self-confidence.
- Help athletes to develop a mental game plan that includes pre-game preparation, a contingency plan for errors during competition, and how to avoid competitive stress.
- Help athletes improve concentration by learning attention control strategies.
Eitzen, D. S. (2012, 5th ed.). Fair and foul: Beyond the myths and paradoxes of sport. (4th Ed.) New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.
Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Traub, G.W. (2008). A Jesuit Education Reader. Contemporary Writings on the Jesuit Mission in Education, Principles, the issue of Catholic Identity, Practical Applications of the Ignatian Way, and More. Loyola Press, Chicago, IL.
This course is 100% online
Student Learning Objectives:
The student should be able to:
1. identify the historical relationships between sport, society, culture and physical activity as evidenced by discussion and readings.
2. discuss critically how social theories contribute to the study of sport.
3. explore how individuals and special populations (especially hidden disabilities and diverse groups) are socialized into sport through case study evaluation.
4. relate how sport deviance and violence affects the sport environment.
5. explain the interactions between physical activity and cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development as evidenced by a topical paper.
6. appraise youth sport and its role in child development and long term athletic participation through a group presentation.
7. evaluate research and journal articles on various aspects of sport and society.
8. create a personal philosophy of sport through a written self-assessment.
9. integrate the Ignatian principles of Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Woman for Others throughout the course and specifically in the reflective journal, relevant discussion boards and the educational , presentation assignment.
1. Introduction, History & Philosophy of Sport, Social Theories
2. Issues in Sociology and Diversity of Sport
3. Issues in Psychology of Sport
Articles and readings for each module will include sections from the textbook, related readings and exercises listed in each module and articles from the library, Sport Discus and Web of Knowledge.
External websites will provide opportunities for further investigation of the module topics.
YouTube videos, scenarios, voiceovers, podcasts etc. can be found as links in the modules or in Quick Links/Media or Course Tools on your Blackboard/Bb and online.
- Discussion Boards
- Reflection Journal: This assignment also requires connections with the Ignatian principles of Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Women for Others.
- Scenario Creation
Article Reviews (3 total)
Required: Kaufman and Wolff, Playing and protesting: Sport as a vehicle for social change). A critical thinking process about current research in sport. Note: one required article and two of your choices for a total of three reviews.
- Educational Power Point Project on a topic related to the history, socio-cultural and/or psychology of sport. Examples include: Munich Olympics, Steroid Era, Hitler's Berlin Olympics, Psychological Motivation in Sport, Gamesmanship v. Sportsmanship Behaviors, Gender Equity in Sport, Racial Equity in Sport, Sports and Media, Sport and Politics, Sport and Religion etc. This assignment also requires connections with the Ignatian principles of Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Women for Others. See Power Point rubric provided on Bb.
- Sport Philosophy Paper: A seminal paper on your coaching philosophy using content from the class and including elements of current socio-cultural issues in sport, ethical decision-making, inclusion of diversity, and athlete-centered mission.
Attendance & Expectations:
- All students are expected to participate in online discussions on Blackboard. Statistical tracking data will be enabled which logs the dates, times, and numbers of your posts.
- All assignments are to be submitted electronically by the due date specified. Once the discussion for a particular discussion board reaches the end date, it will not be possible to make late posts.
The discussion board is used for engaging in discussions about the course content. Whether in groups, or part of an overall class discussion, students are expected to actively participate in each required discussion throughout the term. Detailed discussion board participation requirements are provided in each module. The faculty role is as an observer and facilitator. Your instructors will be reading all messages and may participate in the discussion as appropriate.
- Group Discussions: You will be assigned to a specific group for your assigned discussion board activities within each learning module. The group discussion area can be accessed from within the Learning Module or from the Groups link on the main menu in the Blackboard course.
- Student Lounge: This area contains forums for students to interact in common discussion areas. Use this area to network with students from across the program. You can introduce yourself, post messages to a lounge area, and ask questions about the program and other general topics. The Student Lounge is not a graded activity.
Discussion Board Evaluation Criteria
Discussion Boards for all four Modules related to the text and readings.
Posts will be evaluated on quality and quantity (a minimum of 4 posts per each discussion board and 8 minimum posts per module), as well as the degree to which they promote appropriate discussion with classmates. PLEASE READ CAREFULLY!
1. Message Board 1 Participation (Eitzen textbook): Message board threads or questions will be posted to mirror the text readings for each of the 4 Modules. You are required to post a total of AT LEAST four (4) times within EACH of the four modules as a response to the question(s) posed and/or comments made by your classmates and instructor. The instructor of the course will monitor posts. It is EXPECTED that posts occur at the beginning of the Module so that discussion can be lively and timely. You will note that there are due dates for the first post. Please post in a timely manner for the remainder of the posts. DO NOT wait until the last day to post.
2. Message Board 2 Participation (Ignatian Principles and Sport Topics): Message board threads or questions will be posted to mirror the readings and course materials as you apply the content in your own lives and careers for each of the Modules. You are required to post a total of AT LEAST four (4) times within EACH of the four modules as a response to the question(s) posed and/or comments made by your classmates and instructor. The instructor of the course will monitor posts. (Four posts at 5 pts. per post for 20 points per discussion board). It is EXPECTED that posts occur at the beginning of the Module so that discussion can be lively and timely. You will note that there are due dates for the first post. Please post in a timely manner for the remainder of the posts. DO NOT wait until the last day to post.
3. Please note that a minimum of 4 posts for each of the two discussion boards within each module equals a requirement of a least EIGHT (8) posts per module. Please refer to the rubric below for what constitutes appropriate responses.
4. An acceptable response is one that that combines personal analysis, external research, and reaction to posts by other participants, and some synthesis (combining all elements into one comprehensive statement on the issue). See the rubric below.
5. Please be advised that the instructor has enabled statistics tracking.
6. You will NOT be able to go back and add posts once the deadline for posting has passed and we have moved on to the next Module.
Discussion Board One: Eitzen: Fair & Foul -- Chapter Discussion
Discussion Board 1: Eitzen Chapters 1-3. Sport is two sides of a coin and can be a both good and bad influence. Discuss the duality of sport, how it can unite and divide, and the use of sport symbols.
Discussion Board 3: Eitzen Chapters 4-6. Discuss how sport can be healthy or destructive and promote fairness or injustice. How does athlete vs. adult-centered play affect these traits?
Discussion Board 5: Eitzen Chapters 7-9. Discuss the myths and contradictions in sport argued by the text's author.
Discussion Board 7: Eitzen Chapters 10-13. Discuss sport as a global enterprise largely governed by the dollars it generates. Discuss the challenges of the "dark side" of sport in today's world.
Discussion Board Two: Incorporating Ignatian Principles into Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport
Discussion Board 2: Does the history of sport repeat itself in today's world? Do you believe that we learn from our and other's mistakes?
Discussion Board 4: How will you negotiate coaching and maintain a commitment to inclusion and acceptance of diverse athletes?
Discussion Board 6: How will you model ethical behaviors in a sport culture that has seen its share of negative press and behaviors?
Men and Women for Others
Discussion Board 8: Do you think you will continue to incorporate Ignatian principles into your coaching, teaching or profession life? If so, discuss how.
Discussion Board Evaluation:
Posts will be evaluated on quality and quantity, as well as the degree to which they promote appropriate discussion with classmates. Individual posts will be evaluated using the scale below:
- Level 1: Is a response based solely on past experience and opinion.
- Level 2: Is a response based upon research from both class resources and external sources (articles, books, websites, etc.).
- Level 3: Is a response that combines personal analysis, external research, reactions to posts by other participants, and some synthesis (combining all elements into one comprehensive statement on the issue). See the Rubric describing Level, 3, 2, and 1 posts below.
Your final grade for each discussion forum will be based on the following rubric:
|Good (16-17 points)||Satisfactory (14-15 points)||Unsatisfactory (13 or fewer)|
|One or more posts at Level 3. Very good use of evidence to support points. Shows research beyond the required reading. Responses show consideration of other arguments and support/refute those arguments with additional evidence where appropriate.||One or more posts at Level 2. Good use of evidence to support points, but maybe missing important details from the assigned readings, or may not show research beyond the minimum requirements. Meaningful responses to other arguments; may accept those arguments at face value without challenging or verifying those arguments.||May have one post at Level 2, but others are lacking in detail. Some use of evidence to support points, but most of the argument is based on personal opinion or experience. May show little awareness of key information, demonstrating that the student has not read assigned material. Minimal responses to other posts.||May be missing one or more posts, or posts are at Level 1 and only based on personal opinion and shows no evidence of understanding of the assigned readings or additional research. Minimal or no responses to other posts. Points will be deducted for missed or late posts based on thoroughness of existing ones. For example, two very thorough posts at Level 2 and 3 might be worth 8/10, while two very brief ones would be only 6/10 points.|
Another requirement of the course is the Reflective Journal. You are required to make a least one entry into your journal for each module of the course for a minimum total of 4 posts throughout the course. The required and graded reflection should be at least 350 words or one page long. Additional posts may be any length.
This journal should include your experiences, lessons learned, and reflections of all courses activities and discussions. This may include personal observations of ethical situations and diversity issues and/or how you are applying course content to your own life and coaching situations. They should also reflect your thought process regarding the Ignatian principles of Cura Personalis, Discernment, and Men and Women for Others as they relate to the content of the course.
More specifically, George Traub's book will help you explore and understand the Jesuit mission and the principles of Ignatious as they relate to diversity and ethical behavior within the socio-cultural issues of sport and behavior.
1. Cura Personalis
(Latin meaning "care for the [individual] person") - This piece of Jesuit/Ignatian pedagogy "establishes a personal relationship with students, listens to them in the process of teaching, and draws them toward personal initiative and responsibility for learning" [see "Pedagogy, Ignatian/Jesuit"]).
2. Discernment -- "A process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good. For Ignatius the process involves prayer, reflection and consultation with others - all with honest attention not only to the rational (reasons pro and con) but also to the realm of one's feelings, emotions and desires. When individuals (students) are faced with making decisions of an ethical nature, the goodness of God should lead them"(Mission and Identity, Xavier University). Ignatius, in his Spiritual Exercises, said, "in the case of a person leading a basically good life, the good spirit gives "consolation"--acts quietly, gently and leads one to peace, joy and deeds of loving service--while the bad spirit brings "desolation"--agitates, disturbs the peace and injects fears and discouragement to keep one from doing good (Mission and Identity, Xavier University).
3. Men and Women for Others
Pedro Arrupe (1973) called for a re-education to justice and stated:
"Today our prime educational objective must be to form men-and-women-for-others... people who cannot even conceive of love of God which does not include love for the least of their neighbors; people convinced that love of God which does not issue in justice for human beings is a farce...."
In "Assembly '89", Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, asked that we teach our students to make "no significant decision without first thinking of how it would impact the least in society". He goes on to say several years later, "The real measure of our Jesuit universities, [then,] lies in who our students become. Tomorrow's "whole person" cannot be whole without a well-educated solidarity. We must therefore raise our Jesuit educational standard to "educate the whole person of solidarity for the real world" (1989).
As teachers and coaches, we live in a society that has as an expectation, a demonstration of goodness to our athletes and participants that we can find in living the Jesuit mission through Ignatian pedagogy. According to Kolvenbach, "Every Jesuit academy of higher learning is called to live in a social reality and to live for that social reality, to shed university intelligence upon it and to use university influence to transform it" (1989).
Use this personal journaling area to document your thought process, critical thinking, and understanding of the role ethics and diversity plays in sport depending on your situation and/or career. You may find this helpful when pulling together your information to write your sport philosophy and at times to use to contribute to group discussions. By its very nature, a philosophy is a living, ever-changing document that will likely evolve and change with time and experience. However, you are encouraged to use the journaling space more frequently throughout the term. Details for all assignments are available in the Module area of the Blackboard course.
- The quiz is open book and open source, but high academic integrity should be maintained; no peer collaboration is permissible.
- They will be comprised of 15 True or False questions.
- Details and reading requirements for all quizzes are available in the Module area of the Blackboard course.
Grade Points Earned
F Below 199
Communication with your instructor during this course will generally be conducted by email, cell phone, and Blackboard. Any general questions regarding course assignments, course content, and technical issues should be posted to the Q & A forum under Discussion Boards. (If you have a general question, it is likely that others do as well.) Your instructor will ordinarily respond to any questions within one business day. This means that any questions about assignments should be posted at least one day before the due date. Personal questions, such as those concerning grades or individual issues on assignments, can be directed to your instructor's email or mobile. As with the general questions, your instructor will ordinarily respond to these within one business day
Active and engaged class participation is an important component to online education, and it is an expectation of this course. Students are expected to offer comments, questions, and replies to all required discussion questions that are posed by the instructor (as well as advancing discussion initiated by other students) throughout the course. Posts should be made as soon as possible in the respective Module in order to give others in your group an opportunity to interact with you.
Assignments are due on the date indicated by the course schedule. An assignment is late beginning at 12:01am ET the day after the due date. In general, late assignments are subject to a 5% grade reduction for each 24-hour period after the due date. With adequate notification, family and personal emergencies may be exempt from this policy. Computer and other technical problems are not a legitimate reason for late assignments.
In accordance with the Student Code of Conduct, instances of cheating, plagiarism, and all other forms of academic misconduct are prohibited. At a minimum, any of these offenses will result in a grade of F for the assignment. The maximum sanction imposed may include failure in the course and/or formal disciplinary action, including suspension or expulsion, being taken against you.
All assignments completed for this class must be the original work of the student and must be completed solely for this class. Please be aware that using ANY portion of work completed for another course or another purpose and submitting it in this class constitutes cheating. When in doubt, ask your instructor.
Netiquette is the set of rules and expectations governing online behavior and social interaction. Online discussion etiquette is an important part of this course. Discussion groups and email communication are an integral part of learning online. However, students must be aware of some of the Do's and Don'ts of communication online. Please remember that you are in a classroom environment when participating in discussion boards, emailing the professor, and communicating with fellow students. If you wouldn't say it or do it in a classroom, please don't write it or do it in this online course.
1. Grammar matters.
2. Spelling matters.
3. Review, Review, and then send/post!
4. Respect the privacy, beliefs, and opinions of your classmates.
5. You may challenge each other's ideas, but not each other personally.
6. Read first? write later. Please read all posts and comments before responding, especially if the posts and comments elicit a strong reaction.
7. Remember, "Treat others as you would want to be treated"
8. Stick to the discussion topic at hand for each thread.
9. Do engage in other types of discussion (class-related or personal) in the "Student Lounge" provided on the group pages.
1. Don't type in ALL CAPS. This is regarded as shouting.
2. Don't engage in "Flaming." In other words, no flying off the handle, no ranting, and no having a tantrum. This is totally an unacceptable behavior. If you wouldn't do it in a classroom, don't do it online.
3. Don't make inappropriate comments. No objectionable, sexist, or racist language will be tolerated.
4. Don't forget to use humor and sarcasm sparingly. Students cannot see your facial expressions or hear any voice inflections.
Any student who feels s/he may need an accommodation based on the impact of a disability should contact the instructor privately during the first week of class. All discussions will remain confidential. If you are not yet registered as a student with a documented disability, please contact the Office of Disability Services.
Lisa S. Jutte, Ph.D., ATC
Mentor: Thomas Kessinger, Ph.D.
The Ignatian Mentoring Program has facilitated my development as a Jesuit educator. As a relatively new faculty member at Xavier University, the concepts and principles of Ignatian pedagogy and Jesuit education were novel to me. Through readings (Do You Speak Ignatian?,1 Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy - a desktop primer,2 and Teaching to the Mission, 6thed3) and discussions with my mentor, Dr. Thomas Kessinger, I began to appreciate the difference between the five gifts of our Ignatian heritage (discernment, mission, reflection, service rooted in love and justice, & solidarity and kinship) and the five principles of Ignatian pedagogy (context, experience, reflection of meaning, action, and evaluation) and how both inform Jesuit education.
Within the athletic training major, I teach both a therapeutic exercise course (ATTR 344) and a rehabilitation course (ATTR 485). In these courses, students are asked to create a specific treatment plan for a particular injury. The rehabilitation treatment plan must include all treatment provided from the initial evaluation to patient discharge. Students struggle to design their treatment plans for several reasons including: the size and complexity of the task and the amount of discernment needed. To make treatment decisions, students must recognize and process the pros and cons of several treatment choices. Students find this decision-making process difficult. After gaining more insight into Ignatian pedagogy principles, I wondered if I could improve students' ability to discern through reflection.
After reviewing many of the faculty projects found in Teaching to the Mission 6th ed.,3 I found that reflective essays or journaling were the most common methods used to guide student reflection. I did not think a reflective essay or journal was a good fit for my class challenge. My students were already journaling in a concurrent athletic training course. I feared "another" journal assignment might blend and/or dilute the reflection on the rehabilitation treatment plan assignment. During a discussion with Tom, I was reassured that reflection did not have to be expressed as an essay or journal entry. Rather, I could create a tool. I found this most liberating and was inspired to create a simple reflective tool that my students could use after completing rehabilitation treatment plan assignments. I hoped that the self-reflection would improve their understanding of what they needed to improve upon regarding their ability to make choices, while also making them aware of their own personal growth.
Initially, I thought I could guide my students' reflection using open-ended questions. I discussed my questions with Tom and he suggested that questions fell into one of two themes: ability and achievement. Ability is the capacity to learn and achievement shows current mastery of content. The natural progress was to add a section regarding how the student planned to gain more ability and achievement in the future. After further refinement, I decided to provide more reflective guidance by incorporating a Likert scale for some questions (See Appendix A for my final instrument).
This semester, three students piloted the reflective tool after submitting a rehabilitation plan assignment. Students reported a variety of abilities and achievements. Two interesting patterns emerged. Student 1 did not mark her ability or her personal achievement very high. Student 2 and 3 indicated they had some ability and some personal achievement. All students indicated they had gained some knowledge either about different exercises or rehabilitation protocols. Lastly, all the students indicated they wanted to learn more exercises before treating a future patient. As the individual who assessed their project, those who scored themselves higher on ability and personal achievement also received a higher project score. This observation motivates me to continue to use this instrument to determine if there is some correlation or if is this just a random occurrence.
After my own reflecting on this experience, I realize now how I might embrace Ignatian pedagogy, particularly reflection, in my courses. First, I learned that I should not limit the methods used to reflect. I also gained insight on how to improve the use of my reflective tool. It may be more beneficial to have students reflect on each rehabilitation assignment they submit. Reflecting on several projects may deepen the their own reflective experience and better identify their own personal growth. Lastly, this experience has inspired me to include additional Ignatian pedagogy principles in my courses.
Center for Mission and Identity. Teaching to the Mission Showcasing Jesuit Education in the Classroom. 6th
edition. Cincinnati, OH: Center for Mission and Identity, Xavier University; 2012.
Mooney, D. Jesuit Education and Ignatian pedagogy: A Desktop Primer. Cincinnati, OH: Conway Institute for
Jesuit Education, Center for Mission and Identity, Xavier University; 2012.
Traub, G.W. Do You Speak Ignatian? A Glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit Circles. Cincinnati, OH:
Center for Mission and Identity, Xavier University; 2012.