Management and Entrepreneurship

Integrate Ethics in Operations Management: A Field Study Approach

Alan Jin, Ph.D.
Mentor: Dave Hyland, Ph.D. (Finance)

Acknowledgements:

I would like to extend my appreciation for the opportunity provided by the Ignatian Mentoring Program for the great support, and express my thanks to my mentor Dr. Dave Hyland for his generous time and great guidance.

Introduction:
Ethics lies at the core of Jesuit education. In the operations/supply chain management area, it’s important for our students to learn why and how to operate a business in an ethical way, when they design goods/services/facilities, select processes and layouts, source materials, produce products and services, manage quality, plan logistics systems, etc. In this area, we have seen numerous opportunities, challenges, success stories, and failures. The earlier our students can learn this, the more our society will benefit from them.

I made significant changes to my syllabus and course materials to integrate ethics in my operations management course using ethics-related cases, discussions, videos, and field studies. Building the connection between ethics issues and the operations course concepts helped strengthen students’ knowledge in both ethics and operations management, according to the student feedback.

Course Information: (MGMT302 – Operations Management)
The purpose of this course is to provide undergraduate business students with a thorough introduction to the concepts and tools needed to understand the role of the operations function in the success of an organization, and to improve the quality, productivity, and competitiveness of their organizations’ core processes. Much of the content also applies to other processes in business and society.

This course has lectures, experiential exercises, field studies, videos, case studies, discussions and real world application term project. This course also stresses the importance of ethics in operations. More details will be provided in class.

Ethics is an extremely important, integral part of operation for all businesses, especially in today’s fast paced and globalized business world. Ethical operations bring competitiveness and challenges. For the operations topics that we cover this semester, we have ethics related discussion questions, real world field studies (with short reflection report) case studies, events organized by the Ethics Center of Xavier, etc.  More details are provided in class.  

A Two-Stage Field Study on “Ethics and Quality”:
Rather than lecturing ethics theories in the classroom, I took a more experiential approach (e.g., cases, discussions, stories, videos, and field studies) to integrate ethics in operations management. Research has shown that these experiential learning techniques encourage in-depth understanding of the course material. The knowledge that we have acquired consists, in part, of the context or situation where they were acquired. Abstract course concepts divorced from relevant context have little meaning. Field studies help the students see the relevance of the course knowledge and motivate their interest and learning. This report gives an example of the ethics related field studies that the students did in my operations management course.

Guidelines for the field study are as follows:

1. You’re going to observe the quality management practice in XXX (a local grocery retailer). This field study assignment is related to Quality management (Chapter 6), and is designed to facilitate your reading and make it more relevant and experiential. I will collect your answer and ask you to share your findings/thoughts with the class. 


2. Answer the following questions:

a) How would you define the quality of a XXX? In other words, from a customer’s standpoint, what are its key aspects/dimensions of quality for Kroger?

b) Read our slides, and textbook (9th edition, Page 210, the subsection titled “Cost of Quality”). Based on your experience/observation, what does XXX do in order to prevent quality problems from occurring?  Can you give 10 specific examples?

c) Four major categories of costs are associated with quality (please refer to our slides, and textbook, 9th edition, Page 210, the subsection titled “Cost of Quality”). Read those paragraphs. Based on your experience/observation, can you give some examples of “Internal Failure” and “External Failure” in XXX?

d) Ethics plays an important can critical role in operations management, including quality management. How does the ethics of the employees and customers affect the quality in XXX? Based on your experience/observation, give some examples, to demonstrate how the ethics of the employees and customers could affect the quality of the products/service provided by XXX, positively or negatively. And provide some solutions for the unethical behavior of the employees and customers.

 

Stage One - Sharing Findings

The students did their field study, observing the quality management practice in that business and interviewing the employees/customers of the business. They identified a huge variety of ethical issues in the store and analyzed how they could affect the quality of service and products in that store. They also provided recommendations to resolve these issues. Below is a sample of their findings.

Customer-Related Ethical Issues

Customer stealing: customers hide the products on their person or not scan items in the self check out line.

If a customer has bad attitude towards the employees then they might not be motivated to do their job correctly.

A customer could break a product and not report it. This could give xxx a bad name because it might make people think they don’t watch after their products closely enough.

Ethics plays a major role in quality management. I have seen at xxx before and watched a person grab a chocolate milk, drink it, and put it on top of the shelves out of sight. This unethical behavior not only increases costs for the rest of us who actually pay for our groceries, but they also affect the atmosphere due to certain clientele which in my opinion affects the quality of xxx.

There was a time in which I have seen customers in the store open up products and then put them back which causes the other customers no to buy it because it has already been open and contaminated. This act alone can cause xxx to throw away products that were perfectly fine.

I have seen customers just treat the store like it was a trash dump. They take the products and move them all over and if they do not want them while they are shopping they just throw them out of their cart. This makes shopping very hard for other customers and even harder for the employees.

An unethical customer may return items that are perfectly and claim quality issues to make money.

When xxx treats customers ethically, it helps business in many ways.

The unethical behavior of customers can also negatively affects the quality of xxx’s products, as careless customers consistently leave refrigerator and freezer doors open, which can cause the spoilage of a significant amount of food.This can be prevented through increased monitoring of the refrigerators, and by installing a device in the refrigerators and freezers that detect any dramatic fluctuations in temperature.

Customers might not value ethics and proceed to shoplift, misuse coupon policies and/or harass employees, the company loses money for replacing the stolen items, money lost from an overuse of coupons and employee hiring and training for lost employees.

In terms of customers it would be much harder for xxx to influence how they act. But an unethical customer would be one who is sick with the flu and still goes to the store. This could get other customers and employees sick. Xxx could help fund program that educate customers and help explain how being sick could affect others.

Employee-Related Ethical Issues

Employees help thieves with their stealing by not paying attention in the self-checkout line or not scan items for a customer.

Employees may not care after putting defective items on the shelves or taking them off the shelves.

Employees may not want to put in the work to scan through the items and sort the defective and non-defective items.

Employees could either have an attitude for which they care or do not care. If they do care then the products will be placed neatly, and will be taken care of and make it appealing to the customers so they will end up buying it. If the employee doesn’t care then the product might be broken or not properly taken care of.

The way the employees approach their jobs can determine if the customer has a good or a bad shopping experience and if they have a good or bad opinion of xxx.

If an employee doesn’t listen to the customer closely enough or if they don’t care then they could give them the wrong order and the customer gets very upset.

At the xxx location, they do not seem to enjoy their job and have a poor attitude, which creates a negative atmosphere.

When restocking a particular good that is relatively perishable, an employee might find they’d be able to do their job more quickly if they just replaced the good as fast as possible, not paying attention to expiration dates – leading to possibly wasted product and spoiled product being left on the shelves.

The employees who abuse their positions to steal from xxx or benefit their friends or ignore customers impact the quality of service and environment of xxx.

If the employees decide to make unethical decisions the business would suffer greatly. For example, if they started selling defected products or expired food to customers just because they did not want to waste it there would be many consequences.

The ethics of the employees severely affect the level of quality. For example, I was at xxx last week, and I could not find where tortillas were. I simply walked up to an employee and they informed me where it could be found. Due to the high morals that some employees have, it can increase the level of quality at that particular xxx store.

If an employee is unethical they might let items with less than desirable quality sit on the shelf in order to increase profits.

The better xxx treats its employees, the better they will want to perform ethically. When employees feel like they are treated fairly and paid a fair wage, it causes a more pleasant workplace, which can drive sales and increase efficiency.

The ethics of the employees and customers affect the quality in xxx in many ways. One of the ways this could negatively impact the quality of the products/services provided by xxx is if there is an employee who is rude to the customers and doesn’t really want to talk to them. So the customer no longer wants to go through that person’s checkout lane causing them to go to the self-check-out instead.

An ethical employee would remind their customers if there is any discount they can take on their purchase. It is an ethical thing to do to help the customers save some money, and the customer will return to the store because of it.

In one instance in an xxx store in Downtown Cincinnati, employees were caught relabeling packages and prolonging expiration dates to be able to continue selling meat without having waste. While they were maintaining their profits, the xxx was placing their customers in a danger that they were unaware of when purchasing products. This is unethical, and once uncovered, was damaging to profits.

The employees also need to be honest and careful in throwing out spoiled or rotten produce and deli produces in order to maintain quality and safe products.

An example of unethical behavior at xxx is when an employee scanned non-damaged beer and other goods as damaged and then took the goods home.

Based on my experience going to xxx, I have had very positive employees who are ethical. One example of this was when I was checking out and the casher told me to go back and get a second item since it was “by one get on free.” Among others, this was one of the reasons why to this day I continue to shop at xxx. 

Xxx depends on employees to work hard in order to project a positive image of the company. By failing to perform, and visibly behaving poorly, the organization suffers bother at the service level and at the organizational level.

I noticed an employee not taking some of the cans off the shelf that were expired and instead putting the new ones right in front. This is a huge ethical issue because a can that is outdated could get a customer sick.

Another unethical aspect of an xxx employee would be that she or he doesn’t use gloves in the deli or meat sections.

For example, in the self-checkout line, I witnessed the employee clear people buying alcohol without checking their ID. They were just assuming based on appearance. These people also have the power to let people get by without paying for thing or sneak things out or stop people from doing this. 

If the maintenance people at xxx are not doing their jobs, the floor could remain wet and customers could slop and fall, costing the company money in a lawsuit.

I have noticed at times, some of the employees that check out at the registers are lazy and slow, and I find myself having to bag my own food at times.

An example of an ethics violation would be if an employee were stealing money from the company, such as pocketing money from cash registers or allowing customers to misuse coupons.

It is important that the employees treat each customer equally. In doing this, each customer feels a sense of security when shopping at Kroger and is not made to feel discriminated against or mistreated, especially when it comes to suspicious activity such as a potential shoplifter, customers are not treated differently by any stereotype.

Consequence of Ethical Issues

More security personnel and cameras will be needed, which leads to higher cost for the store and all customers.

Customers may not want to shop at the store that they know many thieves will be around that could steal their wallet or groceries.

Having a lot of defective products on the shelves affects quality when customers are seeing and buying these defective products.

The ethical choices of the xxx employees can affect the overall experience of the customers. The way employees act can deter customers away, and have potential customers go to another grocer.

If I am a customer at xxx and I see an employee drop an open piece of ham on the ground and continue to put it in the display for sale it would certainly affect my decision to buy groceries from that xxx or any xxx in that case. It is absolutely important that employees act with ethical behavior.

Obviously, this problem would result in subpar quality for customers, as the project they might be looking for might have been thrown away, or it might be expired.

Another scenario might include deli workers moving at a slow pace, because they get paid whether they cut meats for customers or not. This would obviously result in longer waiting times for customers, reducing quality.

First off, customers would notice that xxx is giving them bad products and they would do their shopping elsewhere. Secondly, giving customers faulty products could cause serious problems for xxx including lawsuits, fines, and so son.

Recommendations

Hiring good employees and training them well.

Making sure employees are monitored to make sure they are doing their job.

A way that both the customers and employees can avoid poor ethical decisions is a strong, fair, but assertive management. They can train the employees on the way to communicate to other employees as well as customers, creating a stronger connected workplace.

At xxx, in order to attract more customers and keep them coming back, they need to create a positive and comforting atmosphere that makes people feel happy while shopping because usually the idea of grocery shopping is boring and a chore.

When restocking, I think a solution would be to have two separate people replace inventory in alternating shifts, so that if one employee might be engaging in unethical behavior, the other would catch it and fix the problem as soon as possible.

A potential solution might include adding monetary incentive for those employees who have quickest service times.

Some solutions to resolve this issue are to have more cameras watching customers, and potentially have another security guard who walks the store. Additionally, internal control to be put in place to prevent employee fraud would be beneficial to the whole xxx model as costs could be saved and ethical behavior would be improved.

If theft of higher quality and priced products occurs frequently, that product offering might be dropped to reduce the cost of carrying highly sought after items. One product is kept in a plastic case that needs to be opened at the register to prevent theft.

A solution to this would be having more than one employee check quality at different times so they can catch mistake or an unethical employee. Also have a stricter return process that would discourage unethical consumers to return products that are fine.

A solution for this could be a better screening process of the employees so that they aren’t going to be people who treat the customers rudely.

Xxx could institute numerous internal controls designed to prevent the future theft of products. They can also require their employees to enroll in an ethics class prior to employment.

   
Stage Two – In-depth Discussion

At stage two, the students discussed the root causes of the identified ethical issues in that business. They shared their thoughts and knowledge. They concluded that ethics plays an extremely role in quality management, not just for that particular business, but also for all organizations. Quality management, an important topic in operations management, relies on ethical conduct of all stakeholders of the products/services. 

Student Feedback

Student feedback was very positive. They made such comments as, “It’s definitely experiential!” “I definitely remembered it now.” “I’ll remember it for a long time” “I enjoyed it a lot” “It triggered my interest.” “I really saw how ethics affects quality.” “I understand both quality and ethics better.” “It made things relevant to me!” They suggested the continuous use of such field studies.

Conclusion

This field study was just one of efforts that were made to integrate ethics in the operations management course. When this report was writing, more detailed, in-depth data analysis was being conducted to find opportunities to improve this method.

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Development of an Alternative Spring Break Experience Focusing on Social Entrepreneurship and Discernment

Rebecca Luce, Ph.D.
Mentor: Stephanie Brzuzy (Social Work)

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank both Stephanie Brzuzy and Debra Mooney for their enthusiasm and support in working on the ideas for this program, especially as it relates to information and suggestions regarding incorporation of the Jesuit tradition of discernment. Discernment was an unknown process to me when I began work on this project and it has become a topic of substantial interest since I have been introduced to it by both Stephanie and Debra. I expect it to have a lasting influence on the way I make decisions and evaluate the course of my life.

Overview of Alternative Spring Break Experience

This alternative spring break experience is designed to have equal numbers of students from Social Work and Management/Entrepreneurship working together in pairs on a social entrepreneurship project over the course of the week of spring break. The joining of students from both departments represents the two aspects of the field of social entrepreneurship, which is typically defined as the application of entrepreneurial principles to the achievement of social objectives. By having students of each discipline working together to help achieve social goals, each will have the opportunity to learn from the other, while producing a beneficial outcome in the social sector. The students will be housed at a retreat location for the week, away from their typical daily environments in the Cincinnati area or on campus, so they are fully immersed in the program for its duration.

Potential Projects

Students may be assigned to work on a social entrepreneurship project associated with alleviating a social problem in an underprivileged context such as a neighborhood or community which is in need of some support to achieve a desired end. They may also be assigned to work with local entrepreneurs in need of social and entrepreneurial expertise to assist in getting their businesses off the ground. Another alternative would be to provide support and assistance for a nonprofit organization in seeking funds and/or in assessing its performance. Projects for at least the first year of the program will be in the Cincinnati area. Nominations for the project will be sought from local organizations and campus sources.

Potential Structure of the Alternative Spring Break

Initial Weekend

Saturday and Sunday preceding the social entrepreneurship project will be spent in workshops and events to increase teambuilding and self awareness among the participants. Potential activities include a Strengths Assessment Workshop conducted by Tim Kloppenborg of the Management and Entrepreneurship Department. This workshop would help students develop personal consciousness of their strengths as individuals and present an opportunity for them to share this information with others. This would be particularly helpful as an initial exercise in preparation for the discernment component of the program. Other potential workshops for the initial weekend period include (1) an introduction to the social entrepreneurship project for the upcoming week, (2) material and activities related to social entrepreneurship and (3) speakers and activities regarding the process of discernment. Evening hours would be spent in activities encouraging participants to become familiar with each other's backgrounds and interests, as well as discussions of anticipated outcomes of the program.

Weekdays

The tentative structure of the weekday time for the students' alternative spring break is as follows:

Morning: Classroom time on social entrepreneurship, discernment, project site

Afternoon: Work at project site

Dinner: Debrief and discussion of day's activities; guest speakers

Evening: Time for discernment journaling and group discussion

Discernment Component of Program

Because of the nature of the program, focusing on accomplishing social objectives through the use of entrepreneurial techniques, the Jesuit process of discernment is a complementary activity that will help students reflect on what they are learning and how it may be changing their views of what is important to them in their lives. Discernment can take on a variety of forms, but according to the writings of Elizabeth Liebert in The Way of Discernment (2001), discernment literally means discrimination; in this case, faithful discrimination related to decision making. Discernment is a process of assessing how one's desires and decisions fit into God's life plan for us as individuals. "Because our identity is formed in part through our decisions, the making of decisions is actually a privileged moment for growing in discipleship"(Liebert, 2001: 7). The process of discernment provides a semi-structured means to examine one's life experiences and decisions in a way that attends to the wishes of God for us. To be effective, discernment relies on noticing and awareness of one's surroundings, which is an avenue for students to incorporate their social entrepreneurship experiences into their personal discernment journeys.

A journal will be designed for use during the program which will guide students through a series of thought provoking discernment questions that they can use to reflect on the day's experiences as well as the decisions they face in their lives. In addition to personal journaling, group discernment activities that involve sharing individual observations (in a way that is comfortable for each person) will help bring participants closer to each other and provide an opportunity to learn more about the discernment process.

Conclusion

The social entrepreneurship alternative spring break program is designed to provide a unique dual opportunity for students: to work on a meaningful project that incorporates partnering with a student from a sister discipline at Xavier as well as to gain personal awareness of their life direction through the Jesuit tradition of discernment.

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The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: What factors in the management curriculum influence this perception?

Rashmi H. Assudani, Ph.D.
Mentor: David Burns, D.B.A. (Marketing)

Acknowledgements:

I'd like to extend my appreciation to the Ignatian Mentoring Program for providing this opportunity to me. I would also like to express my thanks to my mentor David Burns and Debra Mooney for their tremendous support.

Central Idea

The current corporate world is riddled with fraud and corporate scandals. Many times the perception of what is 'ethical' (or not) may be blurred. This project seeks to examine the factors in the management curriculum that influence the perception of students of ethical and socially responsible business practices. I have started with the hypothesis that if ethics are part of the active discourse in a course, students are likely to be more sensitive to make ethical and socially responsible (business) decisions. I conducted this research in two subsequent semesters in the MGMT 300 (Managerial Behavior) course that I teach at the undergraduate level.

Literature

In the rise of corporate scandals, graduate business schools are being held responsible for developing ethical business leaders (adapted from Evans, Trevino & Weaver, 2006). From that perspective, it is assumed that a course integrated with ethics is likely to produce conscientious students - students who may be better equipped to handle the vagaries of business decisions in a more informed manner. In the context of Jesuit and Ignatian pedagogy, this project aims to examine whether an active discourse in a course taught to the undergraduate students inspires them to make ethically sound (business) decisions by being attentive and conscious to the decisions they make and by reflecting upon the various stakeholders (shareholders, employees, customers, society at large, natural environment, etc.) their decisions have an impact upon.

Course information (MGMT 300 - Managerial Behavior)

MGMT 300 (Williams College of Business Undergraduate Core Curriculum) aims to introduce Xavier undergraduate business students to the various aspects of human behavior such as organizational culture, global management, ethics, motivation, diversity, and leadership that influence the complex process of managing any organization. The concepts covered in this course are relevant and applicable to any organization - be it a for-profit company such as Proctor & Gamble or a non-governmental organization such as the American Red Cross or an institution such as any government agency.

In its current form, this course first began in 1990, and it currently serves approximately 450 students at XU every year. It focuses on the key question of 'why do some organizations/managers perform better than others and what explains the failure of some organizations/managers' Managing in these turbulent times can be very challenging. Therefore, it is important for managers of today to possess management skills and abilities that can allow them to ensure total organizational effectiveness in an ethical and socially responsible manner. The primary objective of this course is to equip the students with the skills that are needed to be successful managers. Thus, the primary focus of this class is to enable the students to:

  • Become familiar with the terminology, concepts, research and theory related to Managerial Behavior
  • Understand the work processes in workplaces and the various challenges that managers face from their various stakeholders
  • Acquire an enhanced ability to influence these processes in an informed manner, and
  • Develop the skill-sets required for managing successfully - these include team-work (developing interpersonal relations, communicating, planning, organizing), leadership skills, and skills such as critical thinking (including ethics and strategic thinking) and problem solving.

As a part of the MGMT 300 course (core course), the final project for students is to examine, in teams, strategies for companies (such as Proctor & Gamble, Pepsi Co., Google) that they select. They act as consultants to these companies, and their role is to advise the company about a possible strategy and its implementation for making the organization more effective. As a part of this project, they collect the information about the internal environment of the company (such as corporate strategy - what business is the company in), other information about the company such as top management, technology issues, ethical issues, economic issues, etc. They also collect information about elements in the external environment of the company (such as competition, customers, suppliers, economic trends, etc.) With the information available to them, the student teams are required to suggest what strategy (or a combination of strategies) will be most appropriate for their company to sustain a competitive advantage.

Study

In Fall of 2006, the focus on ethics and socially responsible business practices was much less than in Spring 2007. While we discuss ethics and social responsibility in our MGMT 300 class, the students were not necessarily expected to tie the subject matter of ethics in their projects. I administered a survey instrument across 43 students - this instrument examined students' perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they suggest to these for-profit companies. This is a reliable and a valid scale called the PRESOR (Singhapakdi et al., 1996). Since I had not specifically asked them to consider ethical implications in their final project, I anticipated that the perception of what the students consider an 'effective' organization will be more closely tied to the organization's financial bottom-line than to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices.

For the Spring 2007 course, I have made substantive changes to the structure of the course. Early in the semester, I discussed a chapter on ethics and social responsibility. Ethics was an important component of our class discussion in other chapters that we covered. I also tied the subject matter of ethics more closely to the final project. The students were specifically asked to consider the ethical implications of their proposed strategy. I will again run the survey instrument closer to the end of the semester across 60 students to examine their perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they have suggested to these for-profit companies. I would anticipate that the perception of the students of an effective organization will be at least as closely tied to the organization's financial bottom-line as well as to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices.

Findings

This is a longitudinal study across two different semesters - I have just finished collecting the data in May, 2007. Across semester differences will be apparent after the second round of data collection. However, a crude cursory glance at the Fall 2006 data suggests that students perceive that ethics and socially responsible business practices are important for the success of a business. This is contrary to what my anticipation of the findings was. I am curious to see what the data from the Spring 2007 semester suggests and how these two data sets compare with each other.

In case there is a substantive difference across the two data sets, I will be drawn to a hypothesis that an active discourse about ethics and socially responsible business practices has an impact on the perception of students. However, should there not be much difference across the two data sets; does that mean that an active discourse is worthless in the classrooms Perhaps not - this finding will help me develop a hypothesis that macro-level institutional influences such as the ones at a Jesuit university (Xavier) embed the students in an ethical discourse. In that event, both the macro-level institutional forces as well as the micro-level individual courses are important to encourage the conversation of ethics. Together, both of these are likely to encourage the internalization of ethics and social responsibility.

Conclusion

"...business students believe they can do a better job of serving all stakeholders - of serving society - than today's business leaders can (The Aspen Institute, 2003). All educators have to do, the students say, is give them the tools to make that happen" (adapted from Samuelson, 2006).

This is exactly what my research project is attempting to find out - this project is, therefore, expected to drive our attention to these various factors/tools that can equip the students to make ethically sound decisions.

Assudani, R., Chinta R., Manolis, C., Burns, D. (in press for April, 2011). "Pedagogy on students" perceptions of the importance of ethics and social responsibility in business firms. Ethics & Behavior.

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Can Ethics Be Taught in Operations Management Course?

Lifang Wu, Ph.D..
Mentor: Peter Bycio, Ph.D. (Management and Entrepreneurship)

Course Information (MGMT 903 Operations Management)

Operations Management refers to the systematic design, direction, and control of processes that transform inputs into services and products for external, as well as internal customers. The course is one of the few MBA core courses required by AACSB. Usually, various concepts and decision-making models related to issues such as operations strategy, process improvement, quality control, inventory, and supply chain management are introduced. The main purpose of this course is to provide XU MBA students with a thorough introduction to the concepts and skills needed to understand the role of the operations in the success of an organization, to lead efforts and make appropriate decisions in the operations functions of their organizations, and to analyze and improve various business processes.

Background

Business ethics education has received renewed interest as a result of corporate and other scandals around the world. When providing the education and training for future managers business schools clearly have a responsibility to acquaint their students with the ethical challenges they will face in the real business world (Felton and Sims 2005). Many critics believe business schools neglected ethics lessons in the past and virtually allowed students to go to practically any lengths to increase corporate profits (Yes, we teach a lot of techniques about minimizing cost or maximizing profit.) With the wake-up calls of ethical scandals, improving ethics teaching in business schools is becoming an increasingly imperative task (Stewart et al. 1996). For example, AACSB has focused attention on ethics teaching through its ethics initiatives, and in 2003 it revised accreditation standards regarding ethics. However, the need for more ethics coverage seems most acutely felt by students and employers. See, for example, the recent MBA cheating scandal at Duke University (Conlin 2007).

On the other hand, concerns still continue to arise about what to teach, who can teach, how to teach and how to assess the impact and effectiveness of ethics education. It is not the intent of this article to try to answer all these questions. Instead, we will focus on addressing one question: Can we teach ethics in operations class It is generally agreed that teaching business ethics should be an integral part of business curriculum through offering stand-alone ethics courses and incorporating ethics into various functional courses. However, the reality is many schools lack both a dedicated course and an effective integration of ethics in the curriculum.

Teaching business ethics in operations management presents several challenges. First of all, ethics did not receive close attention until recently, and many operations professors do not have the motivation and do not feel adequately prepared for teaching ethics. For example, many faculty members pursued their academic degrees directly from school to school, with no practical working experience in industry and little training in ethics or law. With the limitation of resources, asking them to develop expertise and teach ethics could be a tough sell. Secondly, the issue of integrating ethics into various core business courses is still an unresolved problem in general. Thirdly, many faculty are reluctant to give away precious class time to ethics topics, and do not want to squeeze ethics lessons into an already jam-packed syllabus simply because of the time constraint. Finally, there is also frequent debate about whether college students can benefit from an ethics class. The point is: will they change their moral compass after taking the class. As a result, many schools are struggling with how to make ethics an effective part of the curriculum.

Teaching Ethics in OM

Many scholars argue that ethics should be directly incorporated into key business courses and taught by the core business faculty (Dunfee and Robertson 1988). Stewart et al. (1996) also found that most business majors preferred to have ethics integrated into a number of courses rather than a separate course. The basic understanding is usually that ethics should be carried beyond separate elective courses and directly incorporated into key core MBA courses, and that functional faculty must be actively involved in teaching about business ethics. Along this line of logic, this work responds to the need of integrating ethics into operations management course by conducting an experiment for a pedagogical purpose.

Three sections of an MBA operations management class were offered in Spring 2007 (MGMT 903 sections 03A, F2, and 01A) in which 99 students overall were studied. The teaching objectives of the experiment are as follows:

1. Increase students' awareness of ethical issues in global supply chain management.
2. Be aware of various interests of different stakeholders.
3. Help them make informed and well-balanced ethical operational decisions.

Due to the time limitation of this two hour class (seven meetings of three and half hours), ethics topics were taught for about 60 minutes all together in two class sessions. One session was at the beginning of the class covering the global operations strategy issue and the other was in the last class covering international supply chain management ethical issues. Students also read one ethics case after class ("Secrets, Lies, and Sweatshops: How Chinese Suppliers Hide the Truth from U.S. Companies", Business Week, November 27, 2006). Specifically, the following topics were discussed:

1. Business process offshoring

  • Many "Made in USA" (labor intensive) products are not competitive because of the high labor cost.
  • Unethical practices are everywhere, not just in some foreign countries.
  • Business offshoring created some individual losers. But it also increased the purchasing power for US dollars in the domestic market (because of the lower price for imported products).
  • Business should be operated within a feasible region where every stakeholder is taken care of. Being lawful is not enough. Pursuing one or two goals (e.g., low cost) excessively by hurting other stakeholders' interests is unethical.

2. Job elimination and creation

  • Be aware that one lost job can potentially create a dozen jobs in some developing countries which supports families around the globe. And yes, we also know the loss of jobs in the US disrupts many local communities.

3. Corporate social responsibilities

  • As managers, we need to take care of all stakeholders, thus just getting "good quality low price" is not good enough.

4. Labor market in foreign countries

  • Be aware of the differences in everything: e.g., language, culture, legal system, immature market and, the legal systems in many countries are either highly biased or simply not working.
  • Insights from the Business Week case: Labor inspection is not working in many countries because of the widely-spread counter-inspection practices.

5. It is hard to make a 100% "right" ethical decision. Remember one word: Balance.

Results

The materials were generally welcomed by the MBA students. It was relatively easy to lead lively discussion on most of the topics listed above. In order to verify the teaching effectiveness of this one hour, we designed a survey form to test students' understanding on the issues we covered. The survey, adapted from an instrument developed and validated by Froelich and Kottke (1991), was designed to assess an individual's perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate ethical behavior. Each item was a statement that suggested questionable behavior in ethical situations. Subjects were asked to respond to each item twice, once as they believed the typical business person would respond and again according to what they believed the ethical response would be. They were instructed to assume that the typical business person was a mid- or upper-level manager within a small or large company. The term ethical response referred to behavior that is not only legal but also honest, fair, and socially responsible.

Values of 1 to 7 (strongly agree to strongly disagree) were assigned to the responses. Respondents were not asked to give their own answers regarding the ethical situations. It was believed that more accurate responses would be obtained by asking what the ethical should be and also their impression of the typical business practice. We found the following results from the survey:

1. There were significant differences between what the ethical practice was viewed to be, relative to what the typical business practice was seen as.

2. However, the ethics materials presented as part of the class did not produce statistically meaningful changes [as assessed via pre- and post-teaching surveys] in perspectives concerning these issues.

3. Slight improvement was identified for many items we explicitly discussed in the class.

4. For items we did not address directly, the survey results are purely random. There was no positive gain at all.

There were at least two major findings from this experiment. One, that business ethics can be successfully integrated as a topic in the operations management class. Two, adult student views concerning ethics do not change easily. Still, from the instructors' perspective, there was positive improvement in students' awareness and understanding for the issues. Future experimental efforts will focus on spending a similar amount of class time on a smaller, more targeted set of supply chain ethical issues.

References

Felton, E.L. and R.R. Sims. 2005. Teaching Business Ethics: Targeted Outputs. Journal of Business Ethics, 60: 377- 391.

Froelich, K.S. and J.L. Kottke. 1991. Measuring Individual Beliefs about Organizational Ethics. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1991, 51, pp. 377-383.

Dunfee, T.W. and D.C. Robertson. 1988. Integrating Ethics into the Business School Curriculum. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 847-859.

Stewart, K., L. Felicetti and S. Kuehn. 1996. The attitudes of Business Majors toward the Teaching of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, pp: 913-918.

Michelle Conlin, 2007. Cheating or Postmodern Learning? Duke's B-school scandal points up the fuzzy ethics of a collaborative world. Business Week, May 14, 2007, pp. 42.

Appendix: Sample of Survey Questions

Gender: _M _F Years of work experience: _____ Your age: ______ ID#:______
Please give answers that you believe to be the ethical responses.

1. Foreign factories must pay employees the wage that is determined by the local labor market and governmental regulations (minimum wage), but not necessarily the fair wage based on the perception of fair living in developed countries.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


2. In answering criticism of labor conditions at foreign factories, major American importers use strict inspection and monitoring to make sure oversea suppliers are following labor rules. This practice is effective around the world.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


3. In a labor-over-supplied country, if the employee is willing to accept whatever job available, it is ethical for the employer to offer an extra low wage (but over minimum wage). Clearly all stakeholders are happy in this scenario.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


4. Relatively speaking, violations of labor practices are only found in a small number of foreign factories. The majority offers fair wage and safe condition to their employees.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


5. In a competitive labor market, many laborers, especially from poor rural regions, seek to work as many hours as possible, regardless of whether they are properly paid. It is OK to utilize this as a means of cost reduction. This is also required by the fierce price competition.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


6. Nike found one of its Far-East suppliers was using a 12-year-old worker, and Nike was its only major customer. The ethical decision for Nike is to discontinue its relationship with this plant, even when the child worker's family depends on his job for making a living.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


7. It is sometimes necessary for a company to engage in shady practices because the competition is doing so. Otherwise the company will be out of business and everyone will lose their jobs, which is even worse in an ethics perspective.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


8. A company should overlook its supplier's wrongdoing if it is in the best interest of the company. For example, some wrongdoings help reduce the production cost which in turn reduce the price which buyers need to pay.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


9. A buyer should not care how results are achieved at foreign suppliers as long as the desired outcome (satisfactory product quality at low cost) occurs. Should they care, they need to operate their own factories there.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


10. Business offshoring creates no winner since job loss in the US leads to disruptions of many local communities, and manufacturing-offshoring destination countries are loaded with excessive pollution of wastes, water and air.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


11. Job migration makes the world better in at least one perspective, that is one job loss in the U.S. eventually creates two or three jobs in overseas developing countries [e.g., Vietnam] which benefits more families.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


12. Companies that have relied heavily on offshoring lost their relative competitiveness in the global market since they lost their manufacturing capabilities and their overseas suppliers sooner or later will be their rivals in the same battlefield.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


13. Foreign suppliers' "unethical" practices such as cheating and falsification are simply strong evidence that business offshoring is just bad.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


14. Keeping manufacturing jobs in the U.S. can definitely improve the welfare and competitiveness of the nation as a whole.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly agree Neutral Slightly disagree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree


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From Pentagon to Heptagon - Making Jesuit Values Pragmatic

Ravi Chinta, Ph.D.
Mentor: Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco, Ph.D. (Modern Languages)

Introduction
In light of the changing times, the more competitive nature of higher education, and pressures to increase enrollment to head off economic issues in the long term, the Jesuit university is called upon to examine its mission and long term goals. Jesuit universities, based on a 450 year old model of Jesuit ideals and academic rigor and excellence, must not only sustain this marriage of ideas and excellence, but strengthen their focus to include new growth goals. The reality of this expansion includes increased faculty, employees and students from a wider range of diverse backgrounds. How is it possible to continue to grow in size, yet also grow in the level of commitment to a contemporary vision based on the ideals first set forth by St. Ignacio de Loyola Great companies are constantly improving, changing and innovating. But researchers have also discovered that what makes these companies great is their stead fast commitment to their mission (Collins and Porras 1994). This position paper will examine the pentagon model set forth by Xavier University President's Discernment Group (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009), and will expand upon the model by integrating aspects of business and management in order to improve the efficiency of the organization while at the same time permitting significant innovation in design and operation.

The remainder of this paper is organized into four sections. In the following section, we outline the pentagon model that describes the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. Next, we present a heptagon model with innovation and efficiency as two additional vertices that contribute to making the pentagon model more pragmatic. In the third section that follows, we discuss the linkages between the five Gifts and innovation and efficiency. Finally, we present the implications of the heptagon model for practical application.

The Pentagon Model

Dulles (2007: p.10) states that a gift of grace is conferred not for one's personal sanctification but for the benefit of others. The President's Discernment Group at Xavier University identified five expressions or "gifts" of Ignatian Heritage: Mission, Reflection, Discernment, Solidarity and Kinship, and Service Rooted in Justice and Love (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009).

The Mission of Jesuit universities focuses on academic excellence that is rooted in a Catholic faith tradition. The Gift of Mission, as identified by the discernment group, calls for the university to attract and nurture students and employees who are interested in understanding and affirming this heritage. Xavier is part of a network of 28 universities and 52 high schools in the United States, and 160 institutions worldwide, with a heritage dating back to 1548 (Mooney, D., 2002 p. 1). A Jesuit education values academic excellence and rigor, an education that challenges students to reach their fullest potential and "...seeks to develop the whole student-mind, body and spirit" (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A desktop Primer). The Jesuit value of Magis or more is an integral part of the mission. Magis is "striving for more, striving for excellence, according to Marik and Mooney, (2004, p. 12) Magis involves passionately working towards excellence, seeking greater knowledge and finding more purposeful ways in which to carry out our life goals and work. The Latin root excel conveys the sense of rising out or rising above. That's what excellence is: rising above ourselves, and lifting up those around us, by getting the most from our talents and gifts" (Lowney 2009, p. 80).

A Jesuit Education values Cura personalis, "Care of the (Whole, Individual) Person" (Mooney, 2002, p. 2). As part of its mission, faculty at a Jesuit institution must consider the variety of needs of students, both academic and otherwise. Encouraging students to find appropriate ways to deal with stress, to set priorities, to balance work with reflection and to meet the responsibilities of various academic pursuits during the semester, faculty strive to educate and care for the whole person. Finding God in all things, in all circumstances of life is another Jesuit Value inherent in the Mission. This mission challenges faculty, staff and students to consider encounters with others and our environment in a positive manner; to see the good in everything and every experience.

Reflection has been identified as another gift of Ignatian Heritage. This gift applies as much today as it did 500 years ago, during the time of the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola. In What do we mean by an Ignatian Vision" Steve Yandell writes "reflection is the way we discover and compose the meaning of our experience. Reflection is a kind of reality testing" (Yandell, 2005). Luther G. Smith refers to asking a series of self-reflective questions to determine positive results of life experiences (in Mooney, 2002, p. 13). "The Gift of Reflection invites us to pause and consider the world around us and our place within it. It calls us to infuse a culture of attention, reflection and reverence throughout the university" (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36).

The Gift of Discernment involves a decision making process that has potential application to all aspects of daily living, including professional and personal circumstances. Traub (2009) defines discernment in his glossary of Ignatian terms as "A process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option in not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (p. 1). Dr. Tom Merrill writes that the essence of discernment is ,To step back or outside the contextual meaning in order to more fully understand spiritual truth beyond the immediate," (in Mooney, 2002, p. 8). Through the Gift of Discernment applied to one's life and work, decisions regarding day to day challenges as well as life changing experiences can be seen as positive contributions to our world.

The Gift of Solidarity and Kinship is an invitation to learn from all human companions from a variety of backgrounds within and beyond the university setting and to listen and experience life's many situations alongside others. This gift challenges all to look beyond the influences of pop culture and self-interests in order to become fully involved in the community of the university and beyond. Being alert to the needs of others and aware of how to apply personal skills and knowledge, the Gift of Solidarity and Kinship supports the importance of hands-on learning, experiencing and engaging with others as part of life's journey. As Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., stated in his October 6, 2000 address at Santa Clara University, Solidarity is learned through contact rather than through concepts (in Traub, 2009, p. 10).

The final gift of Ignatian heritage is the Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love. This gift presents an invitation to "community engagement as an expression of faith that promotes justice" (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36). Saint Ignatius wanted love to be present not only in words, but also in deeds. This means he calls for us to be responsive to those who unjustly suffer. The Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so themselves (Ellacuría, 2001). With this gift comes the realization that we have the responsibility to pay attention to the social repercussions of our actions or lack thereof on society. "With the help of others and especially the poor, we want to play our role as students, as teachers and researchers, and as Jesuit university in society," (Kolenbach, p. 160).

Need to Enhance the Pentagon Model

The five Gifts pentagon model of the Ignatian heritage described above is an excellent conceptual map that provides guidance for anyone willing to put into practice the Ignatian values. Mission lays the foundation for academic excellence grounded in a Catholic faith tradition. Reflection allows for one to pause considering the world around. Discernment invokes God's spirit to emphasize rational thought in decision making. Finally, solidarity and kinship along with service rooted in justice and love touch on nurturing relationships and providing contributions to society. Learning results from what an individual thinks and does and only from what the individual does and thinks (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Taken together, the five Gifts laid out in the pentagon model provide the basis for understanding the Ignatian heritage and enabling an individual to engage in Ignatian spirituality.

However, the pentagon model falls short in several aspects, and identifying these gaps is a necessary prelude to enhancing the effectiveness of the pentagon model. First, while all the five Gifts work effectively as an integrated set, individually each of them can become ineffective to achieve the desired end result of creating positive change in either internal or external environments. Kirby et al. (2006) detail the experiences of a department of six faculty members in negotiating spirituality in a Jesuit, Catholic university, only to uncover contradictory conditions that confounded their experiences with little guidance. Second, goal setting for each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is not well defined, and this leads to the next problem. Third, measurement of progress in each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is either not explicitly specified or easy to accomplish. Fourth, the five Gifts pentagon model does not specify any process that can guide an individual to take a step-by-step approach, going from mission to service rooted in justice and love. In summary, while the pentagon model is conceptually elegant and self-explanatory, it is also discursive and requires further elaboration to enhance its capacity for pragmatic guidance.

It is essential to give meaning to theoretical concepts to facilitate their use in practice. A number of experimentally controlled studies suggest that the degree of flexible adaptation to new settings is related to the degree to which concepts, procedures and tool designs are understood by learners rather than simply learned by rote (e.g., Adams et al., 1988; Bransford, Zech, Schwartz et al., 2000). A theory must illuminate, explain and guide practice and, if it cannot do those things it is not a theory neither good nor bad. Wishes and hopes are not theory. Sermons and preaching are not theory either. Broudy (1977) discusses the "replicative," "applicative," and "interpretive" aspects of knowing and notes that most assessments have focused almost exclusively on the first two. Broudy (1977) recommends that more interpretive enhancements of theories are needed to make them useful to society. Our paper is an interpretive enhancement.

We propose that the five Gifts pentagon model can be enhanced by adding two extra lenses through which the pentagon model must be viewed. By making use of two key concepts from the business management knowledge, we argue that the pentagon model can be made more pragmatic. In particular, we aver that innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that can be used in conjunction with the five Gifts pentagon model. By wedding business management knowledge with the spiritual knowledge exemplified by Ignatian values, we believe that the shortfalls identified in the five Gifts pentagon model can be addressed adequately. In essence, we make the pentagon model into a heptagon model. Before we present the heptagon model (which is the pentagon model plus innovation and efficiency), we wish to address why we chose these two business concepts for our paper.

Innovation and Efficiency

We believe that the gaps identified in the pentagon model would be best addressed by the inclusion of innovation and efficiency as two new lenses that provide several benefits, namely, a structured goal setting process, a tool for measuring progress, and a well-defined future orientation for our work. However, we humans are limited in our knowledge. "The economic problem of society," according to Friedrich Hayek, is the problem of utilization of knowledge not given to anyone in its totality (1945: p.520). The same argument that Hayek has made about society holds true for organizations and even individuals. Humans are not omniscient Gods, that is, they are limited in their knowledge about future. While we know the past and present relatively better than the future, one significant task for us in the present is essentially on how to change the status-quo for the better, given our limited knowledge about the future. Innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that capture this ambivalence (the temporal balancing across present and future time frames) suffered by organizations and individuals. Efficiency is predominantly focused on improving the status-quo, while innovation is predominantly focused on developing change to create the future state/s. Both are essential for a firm since survival is a prerequisite for advancement into future. Sun Tzu (1963 translation) elegantly put this conundrum of temporal tension best when he exhorted, "Survive before you advance, or else nothing matters."

Business management knowledge suggests that an organization that is not adequately enabling and motivating new possibilities is more likely to witness its own decline a destruction of its own economic structure that will have been induced from within (Moran and Ghoshal, 1999: p.410). Every organization is in a constant state of vigorous but creative tension, as suggested by Joseph Schumpeter (1942), to innovate for future time periods, and at the same time to survive in the present time period. In this familiar evolutionary process, a firm creates and realizes new value and markets, while gradually "handing on the fruits of progress" to others in older markets (Schumpeter, 1947: p.155). In other words, sustainable growth is the talisman for effective firms; and sustainable growth can only be achieved through innovation and efficiency.

Enhanced Heptagon Model

We believe that our heptagon model is not a mere nuanced theoretical enhancement of the pentagon model, but is an essential extension that makes the original model more pragmatic. To be pragmatically useful to individuals, a theory must be grounded in a deep understanding of the logic that allows easy translation of the theory into practice. Innovation and efficiency are key "implementation" variables that are widely used to assess the capacity for survival and adaptation of organizations in changing environments. Our expanded heptagon model is capable of effectively tapping and channeling the vast and largely unexploited reserves of human knowledge and aspirations through innovation (creating tomorrow's world) and efficiency (managing today's world).

Efficiency seems to be important in all domains. It includes a high degree of consistency (lack of variability) that maximizes success and minimizes failure. Business programs like Six Sigma provide a good example of how efficiency is relevant to organizations as well as to individuals (e.g., Pande, Neuman, & Cavanagh, 2000). People who are high on efficiency can rapidly retrieve and accurately apply appropriate knowledge and skills to solve a problem or understand an explanation. Examples include experts who have a great deal of experience with certain types of problems; for example doctors who have seen many instances of diseases in many different people or who have frequently performed a particular type of surgery. They can diagnose and treat a new patient quickly and effectively. When choosing a surgeon for a particular procedure, many potential patients wisely ask, "How many of these have you successfully performed previously" Cost reductions, processes automation, cycle time reductions, faster assets turnover, just-in-time supply chains, total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement projects are all part of the extensive empirical research in business on efficiency. "Faster, better and cheaper" is the clarion call in the realm of efficiency.

However, there are also potential downsides of an overemphasis on efficiency. For example, Hatano & Oura (2003) discuss "routine experts" who become very good at solving particular sets of problems but do not continue to learn throughout their lifetimes (except in the sense of becoming even more efficient at their old routines). This is where an emphasis on innovation comes into play. Our argument is not to eliminate efficiency but to complement it so that people can adapt optimally. In short, we assume that efficiency does not have to be the enemy of innovation and creativity (e.g. Bransford & Stein, 1993). Innovation is often preceded by a sense of disequilibrium that signals that certain processes or ways of thinking (e.g., previously learned routines) are not quite working properly. At other times, new ideas may simply emerge from interactions with tools and people without a prior sense that something was wrong or needed to be fixed. New products, new markets, new technologies, new businesses, new management paradigms and out-of-the-box thinking mark the considerable empirical research in business on innovation. Future-perfect (ex: we will have done X or Y in 10 years) thinking is the first step in abstraction before future visions are actualized in concrete experience/s (Kolb and Kolb, 2005). Scenario planning is a major activity in strategic planning exercises in large corporations. Figure 2 below depicts our heptagon model utilizing innovation and efficiency as the two new nodes.

In Table 1 below, we show with examples how efficiency and innovation concepts can make the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage more practical.

Table 1: Innovation and Efficiency as Two Lenses
Efficiency Innovation

  Efficiency Innovation
Mission Current mission of Xavier University focuses on educating students intellectually, morally and spiritually. Translating this mission into action is demonstrated by the university's emphasis on academic excellence and purposeful work to carry out one's goals. This means rising above ourselves and getting the most from our talents and gifts while lifting up others. Dessler (1999) suggested that one way to build commitment to an organization is to communicate a clear mission and ideology. The current mission can be enhanced by broadening its scope. For example, instead of focusing on the surrounding community, the focus could include a more global definition of community (not merely new geographies, but also conceptual enhancements). The green movement of today and sustainability could become a more integral and explicit part of the mission. Communicating the mission to graduate students, often missed in this realm, would be an important enhancement to the current mission. Students will become the ambassadors to carry out the university mission in the global community. While broadening the current mission, one must preserve the core and stimulate progress, Identify the core nonnegotiable and then cultivate strategic freedom to change everything else as circumstances require. Innovation in mission should make the university more adaptable to changes in external environment so that the university becomes a long-lived entity.
Reflection This is best illustrated by the concept of the "examen" first developed by Ignatius in the 16th century, wherein one pauses during one"s day to reflect upon the context in which one lives. A candid, analytical introspection would surface potential gaps and identify probable strategies to make the current "ways of life" more efficient. Interestingly, the Harvard Business School has developed staying the course methodology to make current processes more efficient (Lowney, 2009: p.176). Innovation in reflection is essentially the same process of reflection repeated for future time frames. This is essential because one needs to continuously monitor progress in order to ensure effective implementation of strategies. "No action plan can foresee the many obstacles and changing conditions that people will face over the weeks and months it takes to implement a strategy"(Luecke, 2006, pp.96-97). Setting up processes for continuously scanning and monitoring the external and internal environments is a key activity here. For example, dialogue meetings with external and internal stakeholders, external speakers and experts visiting the university, forward looking strategy sessions, delegation of goals setting processes to individual levels and course enhancements would be some ways to perform the task of innovative reflection. Critiques based on candid introspection of our current ways and conduct must be encouraged.
Discernment Discernment is "a process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (Traub, 2009). This is a decision making process that has implications for direct connection between professional and personal circumstances. The whole subject of ethics in business centers around efficient discernment wherein God's spirit is invoked effortlessly in all we do. Innovation in the discernment process involves broadening the Catholic perspective through which God's spirit is invoked to multi-faith invocation. This recognizes that God's spirit transcends all faiths, and that for global communities to benefit from the gift of discernment it is vital to find the omnipresent God's spirit as a rich resource available for all and in all faiths. Being a good human is possible in being a good Christian, or Hindu, or Muslim or Jew or Buddhist, or ethical humanist or one in any other faith. The walls of narrow, separate religions within our hearts must be broken down. Already, Catholic churches are recognizing this inevitable trend, and we witness multi-faith congregations even in churches. Inclusiveness is the critical ingredient in innovative discernment. Multi-stakeholder partnerships (ex: community engagement) would provide alternative perspectives and perhaps lead to paradigm changes that may be necessary for the advancement of the university.
Solidarity & Kinship Efficient solidarity and kinship means that the university should engage with both external and internal stakeholders in ways that are continuously becoming faster, better and cheaper. Some examples are engaging the growing alumni in strategic projects such as fund raising or community engagement for student involvement or faculty research. Continuous improvement of current processes and waste elimination must be pursued by building on existing experiences instead of constantly creating new programs. Extensive research in business establishes that cross-cultural differences exist across US and Asian nations, in particular, in relationships management (Zahra, 2005). Solidarity is learned through contacts rather than through concepts (Kolvenbach, 2008). Funding for greater networking with community partners and subsequent course enhancements should become a critical activity for innovation in solidarity and kinship. Making use of web technologies to globalize the scope of external communities and communicating with them with social networking tools such as Skype, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn will become an integral part of this activity. Facilitating useful interactions with both internal and external stakeholders on a continuous basis will be essential for implementing innovation in relationships management. Viewing the world through the stakeholders' eyes and constantly seeking to create more value for to them will be an important aspect of innovation.
Service rooted in Justice and Love The gift of service rooted in justice and love essentially calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so for themselves, e.g., the downtrodden in society and also the future (unborn) generations (Ellacuria, 2001). However, to be efficient in such representation, one has to first become aware of those who need such assistance. This requires a solid understanding of the inequities and injustices in society (intra-university; communities contiguous to the university and global communities as well) and the ability to prioritize in order to choose and focus efforts of the university. Innovation in service rooted in justice and love goes beyond merely being efficient at it in the present, but being genuinely future-oriented. Concepts such as sustainability, bottom-of-the-pyramid, eco-design, multi¬-stakeholder partnerships, and triple-bottom-line are becoming more popular in business terminology. One has to progress from awareness of inequities and injustices, and exert efforts to correct the inequities and injustices in society. This has to be a continuous and integrated process rather than a sporadic one. For example, the temptation to start an initiative by establishing a center that then gradually withers away must be avoided. We can also be innovative by applying other gifts such as reflection and discernment to ensure that our service efforts are relevant and futuristic to make the society better. This requires a thorough understanding of the social repercussions of all of our decisions within the university, both intended as well as unintended consequences. For example, the meals served and how they are served have ecological impact (sustainability) that needs to be considered. Contributing to society is a culmination of all the gifts of our Ignatian heritage.

 

Mission Current mission of Xavier University focuses on educating students intellectually, morally and spiritually. Translating this mission into action is demonstrated by the university's emphasis on academic excellence and purposeful work to carry out one's goals. This means rising above ourselves and getting the most from our talents and gifts while lifting up others. Dessler (1999) suggested that one way to build commitment to an organization is to communicate a clear mission and ideology. The current mission can be enhanced by broadening its scope. For example, instead of focusing on the surrounding community, the focus could include a more global definition of community (not merely new geographies, but also conceptual enhancements). The green movement of today and sustainability could become a more integral and explicit part of the mission. Communicating the mission to graduate students, often missed in this realm, would be an important enhancement to the current mission. Students will become the ambassadors to carry out the university mission in the global community. While broadening the current mission, one must preserve the core and stimulate progress, Identify the core nonnegotiable and then cultivate strategic freedom to change everything else as circumstances require. Innovation in mission should make the university more adaptable to changes in external environment so that the university becomes a long-lived entity.

Reflection This is best illustrated by the concept of the "examen" first developed by Ignatius in the 16th century, wherein one pauses during one's day to reflect upon the context in which one lives. A candid, analytical introspection would surface potential gaps and identify probable strategies to make the current "ways of life" more efficient. Interestingly, the Harvard Business School has developed "staying the course" methodology to make current processes more efficient (Lowney, 2009: p.176). Innovation in reflection is essentially the same process of reflection repeated for future time frames. This is essential because one needs to continuously monitor progress in order to ensure effective implementation of strategies. "No action plan can foresee the many obstacles and changing conditions that people will face over the weeks and months it takes to implement a strategy" (Luecke, 2006, pp.96-97). Setting up processes for continuously scanning and monitoring the external and internal environments is a key activity here. For example, dialogue meetings with external and internal stakeholders, external speakers and experts visiting the university, forward looking strategy sessions, delegation of goals setting processes to individual levels and course enhancements would be some ways to perform the task of innovative reflection. Critiques based on candid introspection of our current ways and conduct must be encouraged.

Discernment Discernment is "a process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good" (Traub, 2009). This is a decision making process that has implications for direct connection between professional and personal circumstances. The whole subject of ethics in business centers around efficient discernment wherein God's spirit is invoked effortlessly in all we do. Innovation in the discernment process involves broadening the Catholic perspective through which God's spirit is invoked to multi-faith invocation. This recognizes that God's spirit transcends all faiths, and that for global communities to benefit from the gift of discernment it is vital to find the omnipresent God's spirit as a rich resource available for all and in all faiths. Being a good human is possible in being a good Christian, or Hindu, or Muslim or Jew or Buddhist, or ethical humanist or one in any other faith. The walls of narrow, separate religions within our hearts must be broken down. Already, Catholic churches are recognizing this inevitable trend, and we witness multi-faith congregations even in churches. Inclusiveness is the critical ingredient in innovative discernment. Multi-stakeholder partnerships (ex: community engagement) would provide alternative perspectives and perhaps lead to paradigm changes that may be necessary for the advancement of the university.

Solidarity & Kinship Efficient solidarity and kinship means that the university should engage with both external and internal stakeholders in ways that are continuously becoming faster, better and cheaper. Some examples are engaging the growing alumni in strategic projects such as fund raising or community engagement for student involvement or faculty research. Continuous improvement of current processes and waste elimination must be pursued by building on existing experiences instead of constantly creating new programs. Extensive research in business establishes that cross-cultural differences exist across US and Asian nations, in particular, in relationships management (Zahra, 2005). Solidarity is learned through contacts rather than through concepts (Kolvenbach, 2008). Funding for greater networking with community partners and subsequent course enhancements should become a critical activity for innovation in solidarity and kinship. Making use of web technologies to globalize the scope of external communities and communicating with them with social networking tools such as Skype, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn will become an integral part of this activity. Facilitating useful interactions with both internal and external stakeholders on a continuous basis will be essential for implementing innovation in relationships management. Viewing the world through the stakeholders' eyes and constantly seeking to create more value for to them will be an important aspect of innovation.

Service rooted in Justice and Love The gift of service rooted in justice and love essentially calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so for themselves, e.g., the downtrodden in society and also the future (unborn) generations (Ellacuria, 2001). However, to be efficient in such representation, one has to first become aware of those who need such assistance. This requires a solid understanding of the inequities and injustices in society (intra-university; communities contiguous to the university and global communities as well) and the ability to prioritize in order to choose and focus efforts of the university. Innovation in service rooted in justice and love goes beyond merely being efficient at it in the present, but being genuinely future-oriented. Concepts such as sustainability, bottom-of-the-pyramid, eco-design, multi¬-stakeholder partnerships, and triple-bottom-line are becoming more popular in business terminology. One has to progress from awareness of inequities and injustices, and exert efforts to correct the inequities and injustices in society. This has to be a continuous and integrated process rather than a sporadic one. For example, the temptation to start an initiative by establishing a center that then gradually withers away must be avoided. We can also be innovative by applying other gifts such as reflection and discernment to ensure that our service efforts are relevant and futuristic to make the society better. This requires a thorough understanding of the social repercussions of all of our decisions within the university, both intended as well as unintended consequences. For example, the meals served and how they are served have ecological impact (sustainability) that needs to be considered. Contributing to society is a culmination of all the gifts of our Ignatian heritage.

The "efficiency" lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the current time frame in which they manifest themselves. The intended result would be greater efficiencies in all of our current activities. For example, cost reductions, waste reductions, process improvements, more efficient communication channels, and doing more with less in all the facets of current lives. The "innovation" lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the future time frames in which they will impact our lives. For example, new business processes, new leadership initiatives, new curricula, new geographies, new partnerships, new demographic markets, and new visions, etc. Our main thesis in this paper is to provide a temporal backbone that spans the present and the future time frames for the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. We believe efficiency and innovation as two lenses provide this structural basis and therefore the heptagon model is an enhancement to the original pentagon model.

Conclusion

In the above paragraphs we summarized the pentagon model (the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage), we described how innovation and efficiency has two additional lenses, we outlined the heptagon model and finally we discussed the linkages between the five Gifts and efficiency and innovation.

In his book "Scholarship Reconsidered"  Boyer (1990) described four kinds of scholarship: the scholarship of discovery (research), the scholarship of integration (synthesis), the scholarship of practice (application), and the scholarship of teaching (pedagogy). Furthermore Weick (1989) suggested a fifth stream by defining the scholarship of common sense as the epistemology of disciplined imagination. Our enhanced heptagon model, we believe, demonstrates scholarship of practice and disciplined and pragmatic imagination. Kurt Lewin argued that "nothing is as practical as a good theory" (1945: 129). We contend that the obverse is equally true. Nothing is as impractical as an abstruse theory. It is thus essential that any attempts to strengthen the link between theory and practice must be strongly encouraged. Our paper is one such effort.

The five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage provide the basis for such intimate connection with God. Yet this spiritual knowledge remains abstruse. When combined with business knowledge, it enlightens an individual with pragmatic guidelines in terms of innovation and efficiency as lenses for deeper insights. Applying Ignatian guidelines is an inherently social enterprise which constantly impacts families, communities, nations and the global community, not only in the present time, but also in future time frames.


References
Adams, L., Kasserman, J., Yearwood, A., Perfetto, G., Bransford, J., & Franks, J. (1988) "The effects of facts versus problem-oriented acquisition" Memory & Cognition, 16, 167-175.

Boyer, E.L. (1990) "Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate" Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Bransford, J. D., Zech, L., Schwartz, D. L., Barron, B. J., Vye, N., & CTGV. (2000) "Design environments that invite and sustain mathematical thinking" In P. Cobb (Ed.) "Symbolizing and Communicating in Mathematics Classrooms" (pp. 275-324). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bransford, J.D. and Stein, B.S. (1993). The Ideal Problem Solver (2nd Ed). New York: Freeman.

Broudy, H. S. (1977) "Types of knowledge and purposes of education" In R. C. Anderson, R. J., Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), "Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge" (pp. 1-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Collins, J. and Porras, J.I. (1994) "Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies" Harper Collins, New York, NY: Harper Business (p. 89).

Dessler, G. (1999) "How to Earn Your Employees' Commitment" Academy of Management Executive.13(2), 58-68.

Dulles, A. (2007) "The Ignatian charism at the dawn of the 21st century" Jesuit Journeys. 15(2): 10-15.

Ellacuría, I. (1982) "The Task of the Christian University" Convocation Address at the University of Santa Clara, June 12, 1982; Una Universidad para el puebo," Diakonia 6, no. 23 (pp. 5 p.5. reference

Hatano, G., & Oura, Y. (2003) "Commentary: Reconceptualizing school learning using insight from expertise research" Educational Researcher, 32 (8), 26-29

Hayek, F.A. (1945) "The Use of Knowledge in Society" American Economic Review. 35(4): 519-530.

Kirby, E.L., McBride, M.C., Shuler, S., Birkholt, M.J., Danielson, M.A. and Pawlowski, D.R. (2006) "The Jesuit Difference (?): Narratives of Negotiating Spiritual Values and Secular Practices" Communication Studies, 57(1): 87 - 105.

Kolb, A.Y., & Kolb, D.A. (2005) "Experiential Learning Theory Bibliography" Experience Based Learning System, Inc. Cleveland, OH.

Kolenbach, P. (2008) "The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice in American Jesuit Higher Education" In G. W. Traub, SJ (Ed.), "A Jesuit Education Reader" ( pp. 144-161) Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press.

Lewin, K. (1945) "The research center for group dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology" Sociometry. 8:126-135.

Lowney, C. (2009) "Heroic Living" Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press.

Luecke, R. (2006) "Decision making: 5 Steps to Better Results" Boston: Havard Business School Press.

Moran, P. and Ghoshal, S. (1999) "Markets, Firms, and the Process of Economic Development" Academy of Management Review, 24(3): 390-412.

Marik, P. and Mooney, D. (2004) "Cura What?" Cincinnati, OH: Ignatian Programs, Xavier University (page 3).

Mooney, D. (2002) "Do You Walk Ignatian?: A Compilation of Jesuit Values Expressed in the Work Day" Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University, Mission and Identity.

Jesuit Education and Pedagogy (2010) "A Desktop Primer" Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University, Division of Mission and Identity.

Pande, P. S., Neuman, R. P., & Cavanagh, R. R. (2000) "The Six Sigma way: how GE, Motorola, and other top companies are honing their performance" New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005) "How College Affects Students" San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Schumpeter, J. (1942) "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy" London: Unwin University Press.

Schumpeter, J. (1947) "The creative response in economic history" Journal of Economic History, 7: 149-159.

Sun Tzu. (1963 Translation) "The Art of War" Translated by Samuel B. Griffeth. Oxford University Press.

Traub, G.W. (2008) "A Jesuit Education Reader" Chicago, IL: Loyola Press. (page 4).

Traub, G.W. and D.K. Mooney (2010) "Ignatian Spirituality among the Professors" Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education., Spring 2010, Number 37, pp.35-38.

Weick, K.E. (1989) "Theory construction as disciplined imagination" Academy of Management Review, 14: 516-531.

Xavier University Cincinnati (2009). Report to the President. p.2 reference.

Yandell, S. (2005) "What Do We Mean by the Ignatian Vision?" Unpublished paper, Xavier University.

Zahra, S.A. (2005) "A theory of international joint ventures: A decade of research" Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 20-28.

Paper presented at the 17th Annual International Conference on Advances in Management, Atlanta, GA, July 14-17, 2010 by Drs. Ravi Chinta, Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco and Debra Mooney.

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Following Xavier's Footsteps: International Management

Mina Lee, PhD
Mentor: Mee-Shew Cheung, PhD (Marketing)

Recommended Textbooks:
Life of Francis Xavier; Apostle of the Indies by Mary Hall Mcclean
World 3.0: Global prosperity and how to achieve it by Pankaj Ghemawat
Doing Business in the Latin America by Thomas H. Becker
The India Way: How India's top business leaders are revolutionizing management by Peter Cappelli, Habir Singh, Jitendra Sinh, and Michael Useem
A Bull in China by Jim Rogers

Articles from the popular business press distributed in class. In addition, students are expected to be familiar with current international business issues as reported in the Wall Street Journal and Business Week.


COURSE OBJECTIVES

The mission of the Williams College of Business (WCB) appears below:
We educate students of business, enabling them to improve organizations and society, consistent with the Jesuit tradition.

The primary objective of this course is to understand the world at the time when St. Francis Xavier traveled. Related to that, students are expected to learn the world today, as previous Jesuits did.

St. Francis Xavier was born in Spain, educated in France, traveled Mozambique (Africa), India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan, Indonesia, and died at China in 1552. In this course, we will discuss his itinerary to comprehend an extraordinary global traveler before the era of globalization.

Classroom activities will include presentation and discussion of theories, practices, case analyses, problem-solving activities, video discussions, and guest speaker visits.

GRADING

Your evaluation is based upon the quality of your class attendance, group presentations, project, exams and individual reports. The percentage weight given to each component is:

1. Exams: 50% (25% each, 2 exams)
2. Final Paper: 40%
3. Attendance/Participation: 10%
Total: 100%


1. Exam 1, 2. 50%

The exams will be essay questions.

2. Class Attendance and Participation: Individual. 10%

The course objectives and format are centered on your preparation for and participation in class. Please treat this class as a workshop for honing your skills in issues concerning International management. Your class participation should demonstrate: (1) evidence of careful preparation of cases and readings; (2) clarity and conciseness of your recommendations; and (3) strong and convincing analysis to support your recommendations.

Following each class session, the grade for class participation will be awarded as follows:

0 Partial or complete absence, arriving late on multiple occasions
1 Attended, but no involvement
2 Attended and contributed to discussion, reflecting a good understanding of material and evidence of preparation. Here, the quality of your participation matters, not the quantity.

3. Final Paper: 40%

The final paper is a student's reflection upon a country where St. Francis Xavier visited. It includes 1) country's cultural, economic, political, geographical, demographic, and technological analysis 2) summary of history 3) current business environment.

The report should be double-spaced, and the body approximately 20 pages, exclusive of exhibits and references. The border margins should be set at no less than one inch on all sides. The font should be 11 point.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Information for the project may be obtained from the Xavier Library, Public Library, the Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce World Trade Division, and the U.S. Department of Commerce Regional Office.

World Wide Web sources:
1. http://www.hoovers.com/features/industry/industries.html
2. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe
3. http://www.yahoo.com/Regional/countries/
4. http://www.usitc.gov/
5. http://www.wto.org/Welcome.html
6. http://www.businessweek.com/
7. http://www.ft.com/
8. http://www.pathfinder.com/fortune/
9. http://www.wsj.com/


ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT

All forms of cheating will result in an F for the course. In this class cheating includes plagiarism other students (previous or current)). Plagiarism also includes write-ups (partial or full) downloaded from the Internet. The academic policy of Xavier University will be enforced in this class.


DISABILITIES

If you have a documented disability or suspect that you might have a disability you, you need to notify to me at the beginning of the semester. To learn more about your rights, please visit http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/transition.html.
To learn about Xavier University's support and policy for disabled students, visit http://www.xavier.edu/lac/student-disability-services.cfm.


COMMUNICATION

Students are responsible for making sure that the e-mail account that they check regularly is listed on the Blackboard site for this course. Please check e-mail and/or the Blackboard site in the semester so you do not miss any additional readings, changes, or announcements.


GRADING SCALES

Calculation of final course grade from test / group presentations / class attendance points.

A 93.4 and above out of 100%
A- 90.0-93.3
B+ 86.7-89.9
B 83.4-86.6
B- 80.0-83.3
C+ 76.6-79.9
C 73.4-76.6
C- 70.0-73.3
D+ 66.7-69.9
D 63.4-66.6
D- 60.0-63.3
F below 60



 Xavier Class schedule

Date Topics Due Date for Assignments
08/14 Sun Course introduction
How to use library resources
 In-class assessment (will not be graded)
08/20 Sat Life of Francis Xavier
From birth to death
Globalization 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
 
08/27 Sat Spain, 1506
Spain was a leading country in the world in the 16th century. They had enough wealth from wide colony, as well as strong military power. Spain literally explored the world along with Portugal. We will go over the history of Spain briefly.

The current problem of EURO and PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain) will be discussed. Regional integration of EU is another important topic in understanding current Spain.

 
09/03 Sat France, 1525
By the time of 1525, the Renaissance was gradually spreading in France. Paris had Universities, where people can meet and share ideas. Ever since then, France is well known for the elite education system.

In this session, we will discuss the current economic leadership of France and Germany in Europe. We will also talk about the French elite education system and its implication to business world.

 
09/10 Sat Africa, 1541
In 16th century, The African was rapidly exploited by European countries. Currently, more than 40% of economy in Africa is conducted informally. Formal and Informal institutions are weak in Africa. Yet, Africa provides certain business opportunities in 21th century.
 Exam 1: Doing business in Spain and France
09/17 Sat India, 1542-1545
India has a long history and relatively recent economic success. After 1991 liberalization, business in India has been flourishing. Indian business has its challenges, for its unemployment is high and infrastructures are outdated. In this session, we will discuss the characteristics of Indian business.
 
09/24 Sat China, 1552
Ming dynasty governed China in 16th century. The dominant religions in China at that time were Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. Matteo Ricci, the first Jesuit in China, arrived and reported about China.

Now, the China is a leading country in terms of economy. China under Hu Jintao (current president) has issue of income inequality, urban-rural conflicts, and social grievance towards rich elites. Still China is one of the most important trading partners of the United States. We will discuss how to do business in China.

 Exam 2: Doing business in China and India
10/01 Sat Indonesia, 1545
The republic of Indonesia, which is full of natural resources, is the world's fourth most populous country. As a country of multiple islands, Indonesia has diverse languages (over 700) and dispersed land. We will discuss the Indonesian economy and its importance in Asia.
 
10/08 Sat Japan, 1549-1551
Nagasaki was the main Japanese portal to the world in 16th century. Through Nagasaki, new trends from the world transferred to the Japan.

Since 1991, Japanese economy is suffering from the asset price bubble. According to Michael Schuman, Japanese corporations became so-called "zombie firms", which are supported by banks. While Japan is in the middle of the liquidity trap (Paul Krugman), there are many global corporations in Japan. Toyota, Honda, Sony, Nintendo, the list goes on. We will discuss the role of Japan in global economy.

Wrap-up

 Final paper due

 

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Exploring the Role of Jesuit Values in the Experience of Work


Dr. Tamara L. Giluk, Ph.D.
Mentor: Dr. Victoria Zascavage Ph.D. (Secondary & Special Education)

Acknowledgements
I am blessed to work at a University and within a College that is guided by strong core values and facilitates the incorporation of these values into the classroom and our lives. I am grateful for the opportunity that the Ignatian Mentoring Program has provided as well as for the efforts and expertise of my program mentor, Tori Zascavage.

Impetus
The Jesuit ideal gives serious attention to profound questions about the meaning of life; work, of course, plays a large role in many individuals' lives. With the assignment described below, I hoped to give students an opportunity to explore the role that work plays in individuals' lives and how Jesuit values might be integrated into that experience. Many students will be managers and leaders of others and their work in the future. I hoped to encourage students to open their minds and hearts to understand experiences other than their own. In previous semesters, class discussions had brought to the surface assumptions on the part of some of the students that I found to be disturbing, for example, that the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation (i.e., behavior performed for its own sake, engendering enjoyment, accomplishment, pride, etc.) was limited to those who were college-educated and/or in professional-level roles rather than those without a college education and/or in low-skill jobs. My expectation was that understanding individuals' experiences of work would 1) facilitate students' understanding of and respect for others and their work, and 2) shape their thinking about how the Ignatian and Jesuit values so critical to their formation at Xavier can also inform their work experience as well as leadership philosophy and behaviors.

Managerial Behavior Course Overview
Managerial Behavior (MGMT 300) provides an introduction to the theory, policies, and practices of management within organizations. Effective management practices include those that not only serve the interests of the organization, but also meet the needs of the people working in that organization. Management means getting things done through others; thus, a key role for students as managers will be to create the environment and conditions that engage others in accomplishing the organization's goals. Ideally, they are able to enhance the lives of employees and at the same time obtain the best possible results for the organization. Topics addressed include: the role of a manager, history of management thought, managing ethics, decision making, motivation, managing teams, leadership, organizational culture, and organizational change.

Managerial Behavior (MGMT 300) is a business core course required for every business major. It also fulfills social science credits within the broader University core. Students generally take the course as sophomores or juniors.

The Assignment: Meaning of Work Analysis Paper1
This assignment was intended to help students understand the meaning of work for individuals (i.e., a person's experience of something meaningfulsomething of value--that work provides) and work-related issues that many Americans face in their jobs. It also served as a vehicle through which to explore the role of Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values in the experience of work. Students worked with a partner to complete this assignment to allow for varying backgrounds and perspectives to contribute to the richness of the analysis.

Students drew from several sources to complete the assignment.
 Bowe, Bowe, & Streeter's (2001) Gig. This book contains approximately 125 essays based on interviews with American workers in a wide range of jobs, including UPS driver, slaughterhouse human resource director, florist, sports agent, escort, labor support doula, prison guard, city planner, nurse, and funeral home director. Gig is a modern update of Studs Terkel's (1974) Working. Students selected 10 interviews to read and analyze.
 Live interview. Students conducted a live interview with someone about his or her job.
 Rev. Traub's Do You Speak Ignatian This booklet provides a glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit circles.
 Discernment Group II Ignatian Values and Traditions "Wheel." This "wheel," part of Appendix A-1 in Discernment Group II's 2012 Final Report, depicts six Ignatian values and examples of what those values look like as concrete actions.

The latter two sources were provided as resources in integrating Jesuit values (e.g., Cura Personalis, Discernment, Finding God in All Things, Magis, Solidarity and Kinship/Men and Women for Others, Reflection, Service Rooted in Justice and Love) in their analyses.

Students analyzed their interviews with respect to the following questions and wrote an eight- to ten-page paper describing the results of their analyses:

 How does the meaning of work differ among the individuals interviewed?
 What similarities exist in regard to the meaning of work among the individuals interviewed?
 After analyzing the interviews, what do you feel most people expect, want, and need from their jobs?
 What indication of Ignatian spirituality or Jesuit values do you see in the individuals' work experiences? What opportunities do you see for individuals or organizations to integrate such values into their work?
 What did you learn about work from reading the interviews in Bowe, Bowe, & Streeter's Gig, conducting your own interview and contemplating work through the lens of Jesuit values?

Students' Knowledge of Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values
Prior to the project, I wanted to understand students' current level of knowledge with respect to Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values specified in the assignment instructions: Cura Personalis, Discernment, Finding God in All Things, Magis, Solidarity and Kinship (Men and Women for Others), Reflection, and Service Rooted in Justice and Love. Thus, students completed a brief, informal survey.

Students had the strongest knowledge of the values of Reflection and Finding God in All Things. Most had a basic idea of what these values were and some had a strong enough knowledge base such that they felt equipped to participate in a discussion on these ideas or integrate them into their lives. On average, students had a basic understanding of the values of Solidarity and Kinship (Men and Women for Others) and Service Rooted in Justice and Love. Although students had seen the terms Discernment, Cura Personalis, and Magis, on average they did not really know what these terms meant.

Students estimated that approximately one third of their coursework at Xavier had incorporated at least some of the above values, whether through class discussion, experiences, or assignments. This integration occurred most often in Theology and Philosophy courses, although students also mentioned incorporation of these values in English/Literature, Management, Accounting, Marketing, Economics, Strategic Human Resource Management, and Science.

Post-assignment, students completed the same brief, informal survey regarding their knowledge of the Jesuit values. On average, for those values about which students already had basic or solid knowledge prior to the assignment, their understanding increased, but only slightly. However, for those values for which students recognized the terms but did not know what they meant Discernment, Cura Personalis, and Magis students expressed an increased understanding of these values, conveying that they now had either a basic idea or good knowledge of these values, with some now feeling equipped to discuss these ideas or apply them to their lives.

Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the Experience of Work
Using the Gig interviews as well as their live interview, students were able to see the Jesuit values come to life in people's work. For example, one pair of students portrayed movie director Tamara Jenkins as "showing solidarity" because she uses her skill and talents to serve others. They noted that she makes "movies, such as Slums of Beverly Hills, which inspire people by telling societal truths and opening people's eyes to the struggles of others around them." They highlighted Jenkin's willingness to learn from fellow director Francis Ford Coppola in order to better use her talents to put her vision into movies as further evidence of solidarity and kinship. They also presented U.S. Congressman Barney Frank as exemplifying service rooted in justice and love based on the injustices (e.g., McCarthy hearings and Emmett Till's murder) that motivated him to go into politics; he wanted to change things. They characterized Frank as magis in action because "he used politics as a way of responding generously to the needs of others." Lastly, in their live interview of a Xavier employee who manages students, they noted that she "models the Ignatian value of cura personalis because--she truly views all of the students she interacts with as unique people and cares for all aspects of them, seeing them as more than an employee." They described her concern if students are sick and willingness to talk with students about anything happening in their lives, characterizing this individual as a second mother.

Another pair of students also saw evidence of cura personalis in action in the work Wendy Day, who founded a non-profit organization that helps rap artists, for instance, advising them on contracts or defending their First Amendment rights with respect to their lyrics. They noted that she respected the dignity of every individual, and valued the diversity and difference amongst the people she worked with. And although she defends rappers First Amendment rights, she also has built trust with the artists and has blunt conversations with them about lyrics that she finds inappropriate. They saw discernment manifested in multiple individuals. For example, FBI agent Allison Mourad deals with cases of child pornography, including often posing as a young child in chat rooms. The students noted that Mourad was able to manage emotions and react appropriately to the emotions of others. Particularly when posing as a child, she exceled at "keeping herself calm and responding appropriately in order to get her work done. Similarly, effective management of emotions was critical for Kim K, who is a surveillance officer in a casino. Various incidents of suicide had taken place at the casino; the students observed that dealing with incidents of suicide can be very difficult, but Kim K had the value of discernment and was able to manage her emotions as well as react appropriately to those incidents."

Lastly, one pair of students noted that simply by participating in the Gig interviews, the participants are portraying Ignatian spirituality as they reflect upon their work and aspirations. These students suggested that "managers could integrate reflections into career planning so that their employees could see where they are now, know where they want to go, and take steps to reach their aspirations."

Student Reactions to Assignment
In the informal survey completed post-assignment, students were asked three open-ended questions regarding what they had learned and the value of the assignment:

1. Comment about your learnings from the assignment regarding the meaning of work for individuals.
2. Comment about your learnings from the assignment regarding Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values (more broadly) and/or specifically how they relate to work.
3. Would you recommend this assignment (or something similar) be used in a future course? Why or why not?

Selected responses to these questions (italicized) are below.

Question #1: Learnings regarding the Meaning of Work

Students learned about the various motivations people have to work and seemed to gain an appreciation for others' work. They also gained life lessons they could apply to their own careers:

I learned that people's jobs aren't always what they seem. Often times, I think that people are what their job title indicates, but the people that work in these positions are just like me and others I know in my life; living with their jobs as only one aspect.

I learned of the many differences of work in our world and society and that, no matter how I view someone's job or position, that work means something to them and potentially something that is not visible from the outside looking in.

Even in professions where morality and ethics aren't readily apparent, this assignment helped to see why people found their jobs rewarding.

I appreciated learning about why people work (more than money), and why they work so hard.

I learned that no matter what field you enter, you should find what you love in that field.

People are motivated by all kinds of reasons to work. The meaning of work to each person is very different.

To get the most out of work, it has to match one's lifestyle and values.

I learned so much from this assignment, mainly that life truly is what you make it no matter the career you chose.

The meaning of work assignment opened my eyes to the many different ways in which people fit into society and contribute to it. Not all of them seemed to have a truly positive impact, but I was able to see why they chose to do what they did.

Question #2: Learnings regarding Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values

Many students found that the assignment helped them to better understand Jesuit values, what they might look like in the real world, and/or the effects of integrating them into one's life:

Through the assignment I learned about the specific terms listed (in the assignment instructions) but overall the readings gave me a context about why this University believes in educating the whole person.

The individuals who incorporated (Jesuit values) into their lives were more content with their job.

The values that I carry and how they influence other co-workers. I also, believe it or not, was able to learn more and more about Xavier's identity and what they stand for.

Through the extra handouts and readings, my knowledge of Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values was broadened immensely.

Of course, some were disappointed with what they found:

This assignment revealed a lack of Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the lives of common Americans. If they are present, it is a weak example of them. It's hard to live them out in real life, and that is a sad fact.

Others found the emphasis on Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in the assignment to be overly challenging or lacking relevance:

I had a tough time with them because most of my classes don't work with them and, as a non-Catholic, they aren't significant to me.

I am not religious. I consider myself an atheist. I feel that us having to incorporate this into an academic paper takes away from the academic quality.

I found the connection between Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values to be difficult to connect to each individual story, as we do not really learn much about these concepts.

Question #3: Recommendation regarding Assignment

Many students found the assignment to be of value and would recommend it going forward:

I personally would not change a thing to this assignment--the knowledge I gained as a result of the research I did helped me fully understand that the Jesuit ideals are like a code to live by, if you use and exhibit these behaviors, then satisfaction will result.

Yes! Although at first I was thinking it'd be a useless burden of work, I was excited to find out how much I enjoyed reading the interviews and making observations; it helped me get more out of them than just surface entertainment. It was also nice to get to use ideas of Ignatian spirituality in a class other than Theology since our education is saturated with these ideas. We don't get enough interaction with this spirituality (especially in business classes)!

I would use it in the future. It was rewarding to be reminded of the Jesuit values through this assignment.

Yes, it was interesting, informative, and relevant.

Yes, because it helps me to understand how to find God in any line of work.

Yes, I would definitely recommend this assignment. It was really interesting and practical to us as college students figuring out what our career will be.

Yes, this assignment allowed me to reflect on my lifestyle and what career would be best for me. I also got to learn about other people's experience in the workplace.

Yes, I learned a lot about life in the job world and learned about the Jesuit values.

Others seemed to like the assignment, but had more specific feedback to consider in revising it for future use:

I would provide some material that shows an example of actual Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit values being lived out fully. That way we can see their benefits and have something to compare to when reading through Gig.

I think people need to be more educated on Jesuit values in order to complete this assignment to get its full effect.

My only criticism is that I couldn't find the connection to management or leadership.

Others had differing reactions, particularly to the Jesuit values portion, requesting that it be made more inclusive or eliminated altogether, whether based on their personal beliefs or other reasons:

The assignment overall was valuable. Integrating Jesuit values isn't totally necessary, but it seems like a good experience to have at a Jesuit University.

I would, though I don't think the Jesuit part is too critical.

I would, but the Jesuit values are something that can be omitted to be replaced with something else. Although it was nice to connect the ideas, I don't think people got a lot out of it.

Yes! I liked reading and writing the Gig part (not so hot on the Jesuit values part). Maybe something to incorporate other faith traditions?

The book was very enjoyable and I have a learned a lot based off of these interviews. I do understand how being a private Jesuit school would want to elevate its values and create an assignment rooted in this, but I still felt bombarded with religion, especially when I have no rapport with Xavier's definition of "God."

Conclusion
In general, I was pleased with the assignment. Students' analyses of what work means to people, how Jesuit values are manifested in people's work, and where there are opportunities to integrate such values were thoughtful and insightful. I delighted in reading their papers. Students' reactions to the assignment indicated that they generally enjoyed the assignment and felt it was worthwhile in terms of their learning. In perhaps the ultimate indication of enjoyment, several students mentioned that they would not be selling the Gig book back at the end of the semester!

However, I am also left with thoughts to ponder in terms of offering this or a similar assignment in the future. Pre-assignment, students seemed to have very different levels of exposure to and knowledge of the Jesuit values. Although I provided the students resources, perhaps additional in-class time devoted to education in this area would be advised. In addition, in the post-assignment survey, several students seemed disinterested in Jesuit values altogether, whether based on their personal beliefs or other reasons not stated. Although the Jesuit values are based in the Catholic faith tradition, I had not perceived them as exclusive based on my perception that serving others or taking time to reflect, for example, are values found in a multitude of faith traditions and even among those with no faith tradition. However, several students seemed to feel excluded by this aspect of the assignment, and I will need to contemplate if there is anything I can do to increase the inclusivity of the assignment in the future.

I do plan to continue to integrate Ignatian Spirituality and Jesuit Values in my courses going forward. As one student mentioned in his or her reaction, they "don't get enough interaction with this spirituality (especially in business classes!)." I think it is important that students realize that the Jesuit values are not ideas limited to Theology classes, but rather, living, breathing, ideals that are relevant to their lives and their future careers in business.

Reference
1
The assignment is adapted from Cox, P. L. (2004). The meaning of work: Studs Terkel's Working as a teaching tool. Journal of Management Education, 28, 757-769.

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